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War in the Pacific Section 5 pages 777-780 Japanese Aggression • On the same day that Pearl Harbor was attacked, Japanese bombers also struck American airfields in: - the Philippines - Wake Island - Guam • The Japanese also invaded Malaya, Thailand, and the city of Hong Kong. General Douglas MacArthur • General MacArthur was the commander of American troops in the Philippines. • When the Japanese took over the Philippines, MacArthur’s troops were forced to retreat to the Bataan Peninsula. • MacArthur left the Philippines and eventually became the supreme Allied commander of the Allied troops in the Pacific. Bataan Death March • Allied troops in the Bataan Peninsula were left to fight the Japanese for several months. • On April 9, 1942, the Allies finally surrendered to the Japanese. • The troops became POW’s (Prisoners of War) and were forced to march to a prison camp nearly 60 miles away. • This march became known as the deadly “Bataan Death March.” How bad was the Bataan Death March? • About 76,000 Allied prisoners started out on the march, but only 54,000 reached the camp. • As one survivor recalled, “Anybody that could walk, they forced ‘em into a line…If you fell to the side, you were either shot by the guards or you were stabbed and left there.” • Why did they fall to the side? Because many of the prisoners were already sick and dying of starvation before they even began the march. Island Hopping • Allied commanders knew the situation was looking very bad for the troops in the Pacific. • The Japanese were winning. • General Douglas MacArthur and Admiral Chester Nimitz had to come up with a new strategy. • This strategy, known as island hopping, called for leapfrogging from one island to the next. • The leapfrogging called for attacking and capturing one island after the other, until the Allied troops could reach Japan and the Philippines. • Eventually, it would be this strategy that would help defeat the Japanese forces in the Pacific. Famous Battles of the Pacific • Battle of the Coral Sea – Why important? - stopped Japanese advance on Australia. • Battle of Midway – Why important? - this was the first major Japanese defeat. • Battle of Leyte Gulf – Why important? - this was the biggest naval battle ever fought in history. • The Allied troops also seized the islands of Iwo Jima and Okinawa. CAN YOU FIND THESE ON YOUR MAP? Kamikaze Pilots • It now looked as though the Japanese were losing to the Allies. • Japan’s last effort to defeat the Allies involved kamikazes. • Kamikazes – suicide pilots. • These pilots crashed planes loaded with explosives into American ships. More pictures of Kamikaze attacks History of the Atomic Bomb • 1939: German scientist Albert Einstein warns the United States that the Nazis could use the energy of an atom to create an “extremely powerful” bomb. • FDR decides to start the: Manhattan Project – a top secret operation to create an atomic bomb using the help of several scientists. • President Harry Truman continued the Manhattan Project after Roosevelt’s death. The bomb was secretly tested in the New Mexico desert a month before it was used against Japan. Potsdam Declaration • From July 17, 1945 – August 2, 1945: - Allied leaders met in Potsdam, Germany to discuss how to handle the Japanese. • The leaders decided to give Japan an ultimatum – either surrender or face “prompt and utter destruction.” • The Japanese did NOT surrender, so President Truman decided to use the Atomic Bomb to finally end the war. “Little Boy” Bomb (Aug. 6, 1945) • Dropped by a B-29 bomber named the Enola Gay. • This was the first bomb used. • The “Little Boy” was dropped on the city of Hiroshima and killed 70,000 people. “Fat Man” Bomb (Aug. 9, 1945) • Dropped by a B-29 bomber named the Bockscar. • This was the second bomb used. • The “Fat Man” was dropped on the city of Nagasaki and killed 40,000 people. Can you find the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on your map? The War Ends • The Japanese had no choice but to surrender to the Allies. • Two extremely powerful atomic bombs had been dropped on two of their largest cities. • August 15, 1945, was declared V-J Day, which means “Victory over Japan.” • The Japanese government formally surrendered to the Allies aboard the U.S.S. Missouri on September 2, 1945. The war was finally over! U.S.S. Alabama The U.S.S. Alabama is docked right here in the city of Mobile in Mobile Bay. In the Atlantic and the Pacific • USS Alabama began her combat service augmenting the British Fleet protecting convoys on the "Murmansk Run" from England through the North Sea to Russia against German warships and aircraft. • The ship transferred to the Pacific Fleet in August 1943, and earned 9 battle stars providing gunfire support for amphibious assaults on Japanese-held islands and protecting carrier task forces from air and surface attack. • Alabama was credited with shooting down 22 Japanese planes. Her radar was the first to detect enemy bombers in the Battle of the Philippine Sea, at the unprecedented range of 190 miles. This warning enabled U.S. fighters and anti-aircraft gunners to destroy over 400 Japanese planes.