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Chapter 23:
Global Challenges
Section1: World War I
Section2: World War II
Section 3: Toward the Present
Section 1
World War I
World War I, fought from 1914 to 1918,
caused terrible destruction and changed
Europe forever.
Fighting Broke out in the summer of 1914 in
Europe.
Nationalism
(trying to prove
Superiority of a nation)
Imperialism
(competing for
colonies and
territories)
Causes
of
World War I
Alliances (forming
To protect and
Defend each
Other)
Armies (to show
Countries strength
And threaten
Enemies)
Spark of War
• There was tension between Serbia and
Austria-Hungary over territory.
• A Serbian Nationalist assassinated the
Austria-Hungary Archduke Francis
Ferdinand and his wife sparked the
beginning of World War I.
• Seeking revenge, Austria-Hungary
declared war on Serbia.
• An alliance system immediately split
Europe into two warring sides.
World War I Alliances
Central Powers
Allied Powers
Triple Alliance
Triple Entente
• Austria-Hungary
• Germany
• Italy
• Great Britain
• France
• Russia
_______________
• U.S.
In time, countries from around the globe joined
in the fight, but some remained neutral.
World War I
• The Germans struck the first blow by sending a
large army to Belgium and France.
• However, the French and British troops stopped
the Germans near Paris.
• Trench Warfare
–
–
–
–
Trenches and Machine Guns
Bloody deadlock
Millions of lives lost
Lasted over 3 years
A Turn in the War
• Germans decide to use a
new weapon (submarine)
to stop the English from
receiving food and
supplies.
• The United States had
warned Germany not to
attack unarmed ships;
however, Germany
ignored these warnings.
• In April 1917, the United
States joined the Allied
Powers.
• The Russians were
exhausted and pulled out
of the war.
• Germans tried a new
attack on France but the
U.S. pushed them out of
France.
• By 1918, the Germans
had suffered serious
defeats and by
November, the Central
Powers had collapsed.
• The Allies pick up the win
in WWI.
The Result of World War I
Treaty of Versailles
• Leaders of the Allies met
in Versailles
– U.S. President Woodrow
Wilson proposed a plan
– League of Nations
– Redrew the Map of Europe
– Took lands from Russia,
Germany, broke up Austria
Hungary and the Ottoman
Empire
– Forced Germany to accept
blame for starting the war
• Reaction to Treaty
– Germans had to give up
land, reduce the size of its
army, give up its colonies,
and pay for the war
damages.
– Germans thought the terms
of the treaty was too harsh.
– Some countries resented
losing lands.
– All nationalities did not get
their own nations.
– This treaty ending up
leading to further conflict
instead of peace.
Russian Revolution
• After WWI, a revolution starts in Russia.
People turned against the government.
– Czar Nicholas II was forced to give up power.
– The Bolshevik leader, Vladimir Lenin built
support and overthrew the new government.
– Lenin created the world’s first Communist
State, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
or the Soviet Union or USSR.
Section 2
World War II
Another Global Conflict takes place, World
War II, lasted from 1939 to 1945.
World War II, the most destructive conflict in
history.
World War II begins in Europe in 1939.
World Wide Great
Depression (1929)
The Treaty of Versailles
Cause of
World War II
Rise of Dictators
(S.U., Italy, and Germany)
Japan-Military
Fascism (nationalism &
Strong government)
Spark of War
• Bitter about the Treaty of Versailles, Hitler
aimed to take revenge for Germany’s loss
by expanding German territory.
• Germany attacked Poland in 1939.
• In response, Great Britain and France
(Allies), declared war on Germany.
• Germany, Italy, and Japan (Axis) joined
Forces.
World War II Alliances
Axis Powers
• Germany
• Italy
• Japan
Allied Powers
• Great Britain
• France
____________
• Russia
• U.S.
In time, countries from around the globe joined
in the fight, but some remained neutral.
A New Kind of War
• New Machines
– Tanks, trucks
– Bombers
• Germany used these new machines to quickly
defeat Poland in a blitzkrieg.
• Hitler’s forces soon overran other European
countries too
– France fell in 1940
– British forces held off the Germans
– Germany attacks the Soviet Union. After brutal loses,
the Soviet Union force Germany to retreat.
A Turn in the War
• On December 7, 1941, Japan
attacked the U.S. Navy at
Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
• Under President Franklin
Roosevelt, the U.S. joined the
Allies.
• Battles continued for two and a
half years in Europe, N. Africa,
the Middle East, and the South
Pacific Ocean.
• In June 1944, the U.S. and
British troops landed in France
and pushed into Germany.
– The Russians attack Germany
from the East.
– Surrounded, the Germans
surrender in May 1945.
•
U.S. used atomic bombs in 2
Japanese cities in June 1945.
– Hiroshima
– Nagasaki
• Japan surrendered. The war
was over. The Allies win
WWII.
Results of the War
•
Casualties
– 34 million soldiers injured
– 22 million soldiers dead
– 30 million civilians dead
•
The Holocaust
– Nazi effort to wipe out the Jews in
a Genocide
– Special camps
– 6 million Jews died
– Millions of others were targeted as
well Slavs, Gypsies and people
with disabilities
– Anne Frank
•
The war had weakened
economies and governments of
many nations
– The U.S. and the Soviet Union
emerged as the world’s strongest
powers
•
The Cold War
– Once allies became enemies
– Period of tension between the
superpowers but no direct fighting
– Arms race
– S.U. set up communism in
Eastern Europe and the U.S.
helped democratic states in
Western Europe
– Extended into Asia
– Korea was divided: North (S.U set
up communism) and South (U.S.
took control)
– Mao Zedong formed a communist
government in China.
Section 3
Toward the Present Day
Because Europe had been weakened so much by
WWII, they were unable to hold on to their
overseas empires from Imperialism.
•Asia
•Asia
•Africa
•India was seen as a
crowned jewel to
Great Britain.
•Vietnamese freed
themselves from France
in 1954
•Ghana won
independence in
1957 from G.B.
•Mohandas Gandhi
led an independence
movement in India.
•Indonesia won in1949
from the Dutch
•Morocco and Tunisia
in 1956 from France
•India and Pakistan
•Middle East
•1948 Jewish state of
Israel is created
•Though Arabs resented
this, Israel defeated
them
•European countries
(Italy, Belgium, and
Portugal) lost their
colonies in Africa by
1981.
Cold War
• During the Cold War, some countries in Africa
sided with the U.S., others sided with the S.U.
Some remained neutral.
• The Cold War divided the world over ideologies:
capitalism vs. communism.
• Berlin (Germany’s Capital) became a source of
tension and divided. East (S.U) and the West
(U.S.).
– The Berlin Wall was built by the Soviets which
became a symbol of the Cold War
The Cold War
• Korean War: In 1950, N. Korea invaded S.
Korea
– China helped N. Korea and the United
Nations helped S. Korea.
– After 3 years of fighting, the war ended with
no winner. Korea remained divided.
• Vietnam War: In 1957, Communists try to
overthrow the south, but U.S. intervene.
– Communist prevailed and Vietnam united as a
communist nation.
The Cold War
• Soviet troops crushed democratic movements in
Hungary and Czechoslovakia. In 1979 when Soviets
invaded Afghanistan, Afghan rebels aided the U.S. in
defeating the Soviets (1989).
• Ronald Reagan (1980s) expanded U.S. military and
weapon, but the S.U. could not keep up.
• Mikhail Gorbachev (Soviet leader) created reforms that
toppled many communist states.
– Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Eastern Germany, Hungary, Poland,
and Romania collapse
– The Berlin War was torn down and united as a democratic nation
in 1980.
– In 1991 the Soviet Union broke into 15 independent countries.
– Japan embraced democracy (still a democracy today)
– But China has remained Communist, but have opened their
markets to the West
World Wide Terrorism
• What is terrorism?
– Shootings, bombings, kidnappings, and hijackings
• Though terrorism has been practiced for
thousands of years, attacks became more
common and deadly in the 1900s.
– Early example is the IRA (Ireland Republican Army)
– The British finally granted N. Ireland self government
in 1998
– The IRA recently disarmed in 2005
A New Kind of War
• Terrorism against Americans
increased in the 1990s.
– Osama bin Laden (Muslim
extremist used al Qaeda)
– 1993 bombed World Trade
Center in NYC, killing 6 and
injuring 1,000
– Deadliest terrorist attacks in
history occurred on
September 11, 2001 (4
hijacked planes). More than
3,000 people died in the
attacks.
– U.S. President George W.
Bush responded by declaring
war on terrorism
– Saddam Hussein was another
threat to Americans. 2003
U.S. invaded Iraq and
removed Hussein from power.
– In 2005, after years of fighting,
Iraq is slowly rebuilding.
• Leaders from around the world
are working together to combat
this problem.
The Global Economy
• “It’s a small world.”
– New forms of communication bringing people closer together
– Exchanging of goods and services
– Depend on each other for the well-being of the planet
• In the global economy, nations around the world are
linked in a single economic network.
– New trade agreements
• World Population reached 6 Billion in 2000
– Problems
•
•
•
•
Protecting the environment
Pollution
Rain Forests
Overgrazing
Successes of our Global Economy
• Successes
– Space
• S.U. 1st space satellite
• 2 Americans walk on moon
– Technology
• Portable radios
• Digital watches
• Computer speed and shrinking size
– Medicine
• Antibiotics
• Structure of DNA
• Repair unhealthy tissue