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Transcript
7
Global Marketing
Research
Learning Objectives
• List and describe the four steps involved in the research
process.
• Differentiate between the challenges posed by secondary
data collection and those posed by primary data collection.
Note cultural differences in marketing research, and explain
ways in which market researchers can adjust to them.
Describe problems related to comparability of studies
undertaken in different national markets.
• Explain the value of analysis by inference to global
marketers.
• Note ways to monitor global competitors.
• Explain the requirements for a global marketing
information system.
Chapter Overview
• Scope of global marketing research
• Challenges in planning international research
• Utilizing secondary data
• Analysis by inference
• Collecting primary data
• Outsourcing research
• Studying the competition
• Environmental review
• Developing a global information system
The Scope
• Global marketing research is used to
make both strategic and tactical
decisions
– Market studies
• Market size, customer needs
– Competitive studies
• Insights, domestic and foreign
– Environmental studies
• Economic, political, legal, physical, cultural
The Challenges
• The global marketplace is complex
– Differences from country to countries exist
at many levels
– Companies frequently lack familiarity with
foreign markets
• Comparing studies across countries can
be difficult
• International research is a relatively
costly endeavor
Research Techniques
The research process
1. Problem definition and development of
research objectives
2. Determination of the sources of
information
3. Collection and analysis of the data from
primary and secondary sources
4. Analysis of the data and presentation of
results
Properly Developing Research
Questions
• Etic approach –Assumes that a research question in
one culture can be used in another culture. This
approach allows for comparison across countries, but
could miss culture differences.
• Emic approach –Assumes cultures are so different
that each requires a separate research study to capture
the local context relative to each countries frame of
reference.
Sources of Information
• Primary Data
– Data collected specifically for a
research assignment
• Secondary data
– Refers to previously collected and
available data
• Both present challenges to
global marketing research
Secondary Data
• Collection and analysis of secondary
data should be done before primary data
collection
• Secondary data is usually available at a
fraction of the cost of obtaining primary
data
Analytic Techniques
•
•
•
•
Demand analysis
Relative market size
Analysis of demand patterns
Analysis by inference
– Proxy variables
Primary Data
• Necessary when secondary data is not
available or is suspect
• When marketers need data tailored to
meet the needs of a specific marketing
decision
Developing a Research Instrument
• Focus groups help capture appropriate
variables to investigate
• Creating a cross-cultural questionnaire
requires
– Back translation…or
– Parallel translation
• Take care with idiomatic expressions
– “Computers” in Taiwanese may become
“calculators” to Singaporeans
Focus Groups
Selection and “Sample Size”
– How focus groups SHOULD be used:
•
•
•
•
Learning how your product is used
Understanding customers’ experience with product
Acquiring descriptive consumer brand perceptions
Exploratory testing of new product, positioning, and
promotion strategies
– How focus groups SHOULD NOT be used:
• Estimate size or dollar value of market
• Definitively identify segments
• Make go/no-go decisions on new products, brand
positioning, or promotion strategies
Observation
Consumer ethnography
– Trained anthropologists
– Visual cues (photo, video) supported by
field notes
• Capture elements of décor, design,
aesthetics, color, fashion, icons
Privacy Concerns
• Personal finances can be a touchy subject in
many countries
– The Dutch are more willing to discuss sex than
money
• The EU Privacy Directive limits the use of
telephone/Internet interviews
– In particular, questions related to subjects such as
health, political beliefs, and sex habits
• The U.S Safe Harbor Framework provides a
streamlined way for U.S. firms to comply
with the European standards
Studying the Competition
• Identify core competencies to predict
future direction of competitors
–
–
–
–
Company statistics
Marketing operations
Future intentions
Competitive behavior