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Chapter 1: Exploring Data
Data Analysis: Making Sense of Data
The Practice of Statistics, 4th edition - For AP*
 Data
Analysis is the process of organizing,
displaying, summarizing, and asking questions
about data.
Individuals – objects (people, animals, things)
described by a set of data
Variable - any characteristic of an individual
Categorical Variable
– places an individual into
one of several groups or
Quantitative Variable
– takes numerical values for
which it makes sense to find
an average.
is the science of data.
Data Analysis
 Statistics
Distribution – tells us what values a variable
takes and how often it takes those values
Data Analysis
generally takes on many different values.
In data analysis, we are interested in how often a
variable takes on each value.
 A variable
Examine each variable
by itself.
Then study
relationships among
the variables.
Start with a graph or
Add numerical
Data Analysis
How to Explore Data
Data Analysis
From Data Analysis to Inference
Collect data from a
representative Sample...
Make an Inference
about the Population.
Perform Data
Analysis, keeping
probability in mind…