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Transcript
A Global Perspective
10
Pricing Products:
Understanding and
Capturing Customer
Value
Philip Kotler
Gary Armstrong
Swee Hoon Ang
Siew Meng Leong
Chin Tiong Tan
Oliver Yau Hon-Ming
10-1
Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
1. Answer the question “What is price?” and discuss the
importance of pricing in today’s fast-changing
environment
2. Discuss the importance of understanding customer
value perceptions when setting prices
3. Discuss the importance of company and product
costs in setting prices
4. Identify and define the other important internal and
external factors affecting a firm’s pricing decisions
10-2
Chapter Outline
1. What Is Price?
2. Factors to Consider When Setting Prices
10-3
What is Price?
•
Price is the amount of money charged for a
product or service.
• The sum of all the values that consumers give up
in order to gain the benefits of having or using a
product or service.
•
Price is the only element in the marketing mix
that produces revenue; all other elements
represent costs.
10-4
Factors to Consider When
Setting Prices
A company’s pricing decisions are affected by both
internal company factors and external environment
factors
• Customer value – Value-oriented pricing strategies: valuebased, good-value, and value-added pricing
• Product Costs – Cost-based pricing strategies: cost-plus pricing,
break-even pricing and target profit pricing
• Internal – Company marketing objectives; marketing mix strategy
and organizational factors
• External – The nature of market and demand, competition, the
economy, reseller needs, and government actions
10-5
A model for price
1 Demand Factors
Elasticity of demand
• Cross elasticities
• Customer value
2
Cost Factors
• Costs
now
• Anticipated costs
• Economic objectives
3
Competitive Factors
• Structure
of competition
• Barriers to entry
• Intent of rivals
perceptions
4 Strategy Issues
• Target market
selection
• Product positioning
• Price objectives
• Marketing program
5 Trade Factors
• Power in the channel
• Traditions and roles
• Margins
6 Legal Factors
• Vertical restrictions
• Price discrimination
Evaluation and
Formation of
Prices & policy
10-6
Factors to Consider When
Setting Prices
Customer Perception of Value
• Effective customer-oriented pricing involves
understanding how much value consumers place on the
benefits they receive from the product and setting a price
that captures that value.
• Value-based pricing uses the buyers’ perception of
value, not the seller’s cost, as the key to pricing. Price is
considered before the marketing program is set.
• Value-based pricing is customer-driven.
• Cost-based pricing is product-driven.
10-7
Factors to Consider When
Setting Prices
Customer Perception of Value
• Good-value pricing offers the right combination of
quality and good service to fair price.
• Existing brands are being redesigned to offer more
quality for a given price or the same quality for less price.
• Everyday low pricing (EDLP) involves charging a
constant everyday low price with few or no temporary
price discounts.
• High-low pricing involves charging higher prices on an
everyday basis but running frequent promotions to lower
prices temporarily on selected items.
10-8
Factors to Consider When
Setting Prices
Customer Perception of Value
• Pricing power is the ability to escape price competition
and to justify higher prices and margins without losing
market share (especially important in B2B).
• Value-added pricing attaches value-added features and
services to differentiate offers, support higher prices, and
build pricing power.
10-9
Factors to Consider When
Setting Prices
Company and Product Costs
• Cost-based pricing involves setting prices based on the
costs for producing, distributing, and selling the
product plus a fair rate of return for its effort and risk.
• Types of costs
• Fixed costs
• Variable costs
• Total costs
10-10
Factors to Consider When
Setting Prices
Company and Product Costs
• Fixed costs are the costs that do not vary with
production or sales level – Rent; Utilities, Interest and
Executive salaries
• Variable costs are the costs that vary with the level of
production – Packaging; Raw materials
• Total costs are the sum of the fixed and variable costs
for any given level of production.
• Average cost is the cost associated with a given level of
output.
– Experience or learning curve is when the average cost falls as
production increases because fixed costs are spread over more
units.
10-11
Factors to Consider When
Setting Prices
Company and Product Costs - Cost-based
pricing
• Cost-plus pricing adds a standard markup to
the cost of the product.
• Break-even pricing is the price at which total
costs are equal to total revenue and there is no
profit.
• Target profit pricing (a variation of break-even)
is the price at which the firm will break even or
make the profit it is seeking.
10-12
Factors to Consider When
Setting Prices
Other Internal and External Considerations
Affecting Price Decisions
• Customer perceptions of value set the upper
limit for prices, and costs set the lower limit.
• Companies must consider internal and external
factors when setting prices.
10-13
Price pressures
Competition creates
down pressure
POTENTIAL PERCEIVED VALUE
Marketing communication
can raise perceived value
CONSUMER’S WILLINGNESS TO PAY
Feasible price
Consumer’s
incentive to buy
range
PRICE
Producer’s reward
(contribution to fixed
cost)
VARIABLE COST
14
10-14
Factors to Consider When
Setting Prices
Other Internal Considerations Affecting
• Marketing strategy, objectives, and
marketing mix
General pricing objectives include:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Survival
Profit maximization
Market share leadership
Customer retention and relationship building
Attracting new customers
Opposing competitive threats
Increasing customer excitement
• Organizational considerations
– Who should set the price
– Who can influence prices
10-15
Factors to Consider When
Setting Prices
Overall Marketing Strategy, Objectives and Mix
• Target costing starts with an ideal selling price based on
consumer value considerations and then targets costs
that will ensure that the price is met.
• Non-price strategies differentiate the marketing offer to
make it worth a higher price.
10-16
Factors to Consider When Setting
Prices
Other External Considerations
• The market and demand
Types of markets: Seller’s pricing freedom varies
– Pure competition
– Monopolistic competition
– Oligopolistic competition
– Pure monopoly
• Analyzing the price-demand relationship
• Competitors’ strategies and prices
• Other environmental factors: economic conditions,
government actions, social concerns…
10-17
Factors to Consider When
Setting Prices
Types of Markets
• Pure competition is a market with many buyers and sellers trading
uniform commodities where no single buyer or seller has much effect
on market price.
• Monopolistic competition is a market with many buyers and sellers
who trade over a range of prices rather than a single market
price with differentiated offers.
• Oligopolistic competition is a market with few sellers because it is
difficult for sellers to enter who are highly sensitive to each other’s
pricing and marketing strategies.
• Pure monopoly is a market with only one seller. In a regulated
monopoly, the government permits a price that will yield a fair return.
In a non-regulated monopoly, companies are free to set a market
price.
10-18
Factors to Consider When
Setting Prices
Analyzing the Price-Demand Relationship
• Before setting prices, the marketer must understand the
relationship between price and demand for its products.
• The demand curve shows the number of units the
market will buy in a given period at different prices.
• Normally, demand and price are inversely related.
• Higher price = lower demand
• For prestige (luxury) goods, higher price can equal higher
demand when consumers perceive higher prices as higher
quality.
10-19
Factors to Consider When
Setting Prices
Price Elasticity of Demand
• Price elasticity of demand illustrates the response of
demand to a change in price.
• Inelastic demand occurs when demand hardly changes
when there is a small change in price.
• Elastic demand occurs when demand changes greatly for
a small change in price.
10-20
Factors to Consider When
Setting Prices
Price Elasticity of Demand
• Factors affecting price elasticity of demand
Buyers are less price sensitive when
• Unique product
• High in quality, prestige
• Substitute products are hard to find
• Total expenditure is low relative to income
• Sellers consider lowering prices if the demand is elastic
10-21
Factors to Consider When
Setting Prices
Competitors’ Strategies and Prices
• Comparison of offering in terms of customer
value
• Strength of competitors
• Competition pricing strategies
• Customer price sensitivity
10-22