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Evolution Review
AP Bio
What is natural selection?
 Survival of the fittest
 Those with the best adaptations survive and reproduce
What are the 5 prezygotic
barriers?
 Temporal isolation
 Habitat isolation
 Behavioral isolation
 Mechanical isolation
 Gametic isolation
How old is the Earth?
 4.6 Billion years old
List the categories of taxonomy.
 Kingdom
 Phylum
 Class
 Order
 Family
 Genus
 Species
What are the 3 domains?
 Bacteria (prokaryote)
 Archaea (prokaryote)
 Eukarya
What happens after mass
extinctions?
 Animals that survive reproduce and become more
diverse
What is Pangaea?
 The supercontinent that existed 200 mya
What can plate tectonics cause?
 Volcanoes
 Islands
 Earthquakes
 Move continents together or apart
 Mountains
What caused the Cretaceous
extinction and how do we know?
 An asteroid
 There is a large crater under the Gulf of Mexico with
minerals from outer space
What are lemurs, and where do
they live?
 Primates
 Prosimians
 Madagascar
Which ape spends the most time
in trees?
 Gibbons
Who is Jane Goodall?
 English Primatologist
 Studied chimpanzees
 Saw them make tools
Who is Mary Leakey?
 Archaeologist
 Found fossilized footprints and Lucy
Who is Lucy?
 Our ancestor
 Australopithecus aferensis
Who is Ida?
 65 myo common ancestor of all primates, including us
Which ape are we most closely
related to?
 Chimpanzees
Where did modern humans
evolve?
 Africa
When did modern humans evolve?
 100,000 years ago
What was the first major step in
human evolution?
 Evolution of bipedalism
List some anthropoids
 Monkeys
 Apes
 Humans
List some prosimians
 Lemurs
 Tarsiers
 Lorises
List some apes
 Gorilla
 Chimp
 Bonobo
 Gibbon
 Orangutan
What is an exaptation?
 When a structure evolves for one purpose and then
later is adapted for another
 Like feathers on dinos then birds
What is a phylogenic tree?
 A diagram that traces evolutionary relationships
What is convergent evolution?
 When 2 species that are not closely related resemble
each other because they live in similar environments
 Like bee wings and bird wings
 Sharks and dolphins
Which kingdoms are included in
Domain Eukarya?
 Monera
 Protista
 Fungi
 Plantae
 Animalia
Which domains are prokaryotic?
 Bacteria
 Archaea
Which primates have prehensile
tails?
 New World Monkeys
What is the oldest known primate
group?
 prosimians
When did all primates share a
common ancestor?
 65 mya
Which primates use tools?
 Chimps
 Humans
Do we come from monkeys?
 No, we share a common ancestor
List the 3 main species of Homo in
the order they evolved.
 Homo habilis
 Homo erectus
 Homo sapien
Where is the Fertile Crescent and
what is it like?
 The Middle East
 “Cradle of Civilization”
 Where culture developed
 Used to be farms, now it’s a desert due to overgrazing
Name some Old World Monkeys
 Baboons
 Languar Monkey
Name some New World Monkeys.
 Spider Monkey
 Tamarin Monkey
What caused the adaptive
radiation of finches on the
Galapagos?
 Geographic isolation
If p is equal to 0.6, what is q?
 0.4
If 600/1000 people show the
dominant phenotype, what is q2?
 400/1000 = 0.4
 Always always always find q2 first
What are the 5 H-W conditions?
 Large pop
 Random mating
 No mutation
 No gene flow
 No selection (equal reproductive success)
The founder’s effect is an
example of what?
 Genetic drift
What do we use phylogenic trees
for?
 To show which organisms/groups of organisms are
most closely related
What things are homologous to
human arms?
 Whale flipper
 Bat wing
 Frog leg
 Cat arm
List King Philip in order
 Kingdom
 Phylum
 Class
 Order
 Family
 Genus
 Species
How do bacteria develop antibiotic
resistance?
 Natural selection
 Survival of the fittest
How did Linnaeus classify
organisms?
 By how they look (physical characteristics)
Polyploidy is an example of
______ speciation?
 sympatric
What is a species?
 A group of individuals that can breed and produce
fertile offspring
What is adaptive radiation?
 The evolution of several species from one single
species
What is kin selection?
 The survival of related individuals with shared genes
due to altruistic behavior
What is the founder effect?
 The establishment of a new, genetically unique
population through genetic drift
What is convergent evolution?
 The independent development of similar characteristics
in unrelated organisms
Which results in more variation,
sexual or asexual reproduction?
 sexual
Why are mules sterile?
 The chromosome number changed and no gametes
will pair up the right way