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Transcript
Methods in Evolutionary Ecology
From Observation to Experimental Design
From Question to Hypothesis
From Evidence to Argument
From Hypothesis to Theory
By Shuping Zhang , Institue of Ecology and Biodiversity, Shandong University, April 2014
• What is Evolution
• What is Evolutionary Ecology
• What are the methods in evolutionary ecology
By Shuping Zhang , Institue of Ecology and
Biodiversity, Shandong University, April
2014
Charle Robert Darwin,1809-1882
1831-1836 on HMS Beagle
1 On the origin of
species, 1859
2 Darwin, Charles; Wallace,
(c) 2001 by W.H. Freeman and Company
Alfred Russel (1858), "On the
Tendency of Species to form
Varieties; and on the
Perpetuation of Varieties and
Species by Natural Means of
Selection", Zoological Journal of
the Linnean Society 3: 46–
50, doi:10.1111/j.10963642.1858.tb02500.x, retrieved 14
January 2007
Main Concepts of Evolution
•
•
•
•
Change in genetic makeup of a population
There is standing genetic variation
The genetic variation is inheritable
The inheritable variation are related to
organism’s fitness
• Thus the variation could be adaptive shaped
by natural selection
By Shuping Zhang , Institue of Ecology and
Biodiversity, Shandong University, April
2014
Evolutionary ecology
• Evolutionary ecology lies at the intersection of
ecology and evolutionary biology.
• It approaches the study of ecology in a way that
explicitly considers the evolutionary histories of
species and the interactions between them.
• The main subfields of evolutionary ecology are life
history evolution, sociobiology (the evolution of
social behavior), the evolution of interspecific and
the evolution of biodiversity and of communities.
By Shuping Zhang , Institue of Ecology and
Biodiversity, Shandong University, April
2014
Where we can observe genetic
variation?
•
•
•
•
•
From phenotypic variation
From karyotype (核型)
From allozyme markers
From molecular markers
From genome (NGS)
By Shuping Zhang , Institue of Ecology and
Biodiversity, Shandong University, April
2014
Track the progress in evolutionary ecology
research by following good journals
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Evolutionary Ecology Research - a journal in the field.
Methods in Ecology and Evolution - a journal in the field.
Ecology and Evolution - Wiley
Evolutionary Ecology – Springer
Ecology Letters
Trends in Ecology and Evolution
Journal of Ecology/Journal of Molecular Ecology
Ecology
Oikos
Science/Nature
By Shuping Zhang , Institue of Ecology and
Biodiversity, Shandong University, April
2014
The most important things matter
evolutionary ecology of a species
•
•
•
•
Sexual or A sexual?
Ploidy?
Sex system?
Mating System?
By Shuping Zhang , Institue of Ecology and
Biodiversity, Shandong University, April
2014
A evolutionary paradox of a beautiful shrub
species, Rosa rugosa
•
•
•
•
•
Background
Questions
Methods
Results
Discussion and conclusions
By Shuping Zhang , Institue of Ecology and
Biodiversity, Shandong University, April
2014
Background
 The species, Rosa rugosa (Rosaceae)
 Natural distribute in East Asia and its invasion in
Europe
 Declining in China
 Invasion in NW Europe
 Sexual and asexual reproduction, self-incompatible,
diploid
Background
 The species, Rosa rugosa (Rosaceae)
 Natural distribution in East Asia and its
invasion in Europe
 Declining in China
 Invasion in NW Europe
Background
 The species, Rosa rugosa (Rosaceae)
 Natural distribution in East Asia and its
invasion in Europe
 Declining in China
 Invasion in NW Europe
Invasion in NW Europe
① It was firstly introduced into GB in 1796, established in
gardens in the 1870s, first recorded in the wild of
Cumberland in 1927.
② Then the naturalized distribution was recorded in 16
European countries between the latitudes c. 46°and
68°N. (Bruun,2005)
③ It competed habitat, pollinators with the native species
and excluded native Rosa species (Isermann, 2008) or
hybridized with native Rosa species.
(Bruun, 2005)
Why is R. rugosa?
① The species take some advantages as a research
system for study adaptation and evolution of shrub
plant.
② Multiple introduction, no loss of genetic diversity
and evolved new variation from native
populations .(Kelager et al, 2012) and loss of genetic
diversity in the populations of China (Yang et al,
2009) have been found.
③ There is no report about differences in growth and
reprodution between the invasive populations of
NW Europe and the declining populations of China.
Outline
Background
Questions
Methods
Results
Discussion and conclusions
New questions
Questions
1. Does Rosa rugosa Thunb. perform better
in the invasive populations of NW Europe
than in the declining populations of China?
2. What are differences in growth and
reproduction
between
the
invasive
populations of NW Europe and the declining
populations of China?
3. What are differences in growth and
reproduction
between
shrubs
within
population?
Outline
Background
Questions
Methods
Results
Discussion and conclusions
New questions
Methods
1.
Five invasive populations, Two declining populations and 10-16 shrub
patches from each population.
2.
Two plots (at center and edge of the shrub patch) of 1 m2 within each
shrub patch.
3.
Measured the traits related to growth and reproduction: Height (cm),
cover(%), hip number of R. rugosa in each plot of 1 m2.
4.
Collected 40 hips from each shrub patch.
5.
Measured the hip length(mm), width(mm), seed number per hip of 10
hips from each shrub patch to calculate the seed production.
6.
Determined the weight per hundred seeds 3 times for each shrub patch.
Table 1 Location, sample size and habitat of each investigated R. rugosa population.
Location/Country
Abbreviation
Sample Size
(Shrub number)
Habitat
Invasive expanding populations in Northwest Europe
Langeoog/Germany
LAN
15
Manmade sand dunes against North Sea
Hundige/Denmark
HUN
14
Manmade sand beach along Baltic Sea coast
Dragor/Denmark
DRA
11
Sand beach along Baltic Sea coast
Heatherhill/Denmark
HEA
11
Sand cliff along Kattegat Bay coast, connecting Baltic
Sea and North Sea.
Scanor/ Sweden
SKA
12
Sand beach Baltic Sea coast
5
63
Muping/ China
MP
10
Sand beach along Bohai Sea
Hunchun/ China
HCH
10
Sand dunes along Tumenjiang River Valley
2
20
Total
Native endangered populations in China
Total
Statistical analysis of data
• t-test
• One way and multiways ANOVA, ANCOVA,
linear regression, descriptive statistics.
• Software: Origin 9.0, R 3.0.3 (Packages: HH,
Lattice, ggplot2, ggmap etc.)
By Shuping Zhang , Institue of Ecology and
Biodiversity, Shandong University, April
2014
Outline
• Background
• Questions
• Methods
• Results
• Discussion and conclusions
• New questions
Results
1. Differences between introduced and native
populations
2. Differences between all populations
3. Differences between shrubs within populations
Differences between introduced and native populations
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
Seed number per square meter
2000
1000
0
Invasive
Native
Population type
By Shuping Zhang , Institue of Ecology and
Biodiversity, Shandong University, April
2014
Differences between all populations
By Shuping Zhang , Institue of Ecology and
Biodiversity, Shandong University, April
2014
By Shuping Zhang , Institue of Ecology and
Biodiversity, Shandong University, April
2014
Differences between shrubs within populations
By Shuping Zhang , Institue of Ecology and
Biodiversity, Shandong University, April
2014
By Shuping Zhang , Institue of Ecology and
Biodiversity, Shandong University, April
2014
Population or genotype differentiation
ln.Seed.number. ~ Cover + Population
20
DRA
40
60
80
100
20
HEA
HUN
40
60
80
100
20
LAN
40
MP
60
80
100
SKA
superpose
9
8
ln.Seed.number.
7
Population
DRA
HEA
HUN
LAN
MP
SKA
6
5
4
20
40
60
80
100
20
40
60
80
100
20
40
60
80
100
Cover
By Shuping Zhang , Institue of Ecology and
Biodiversity, Shandong University, April
2014
20
40
60
80
100
By Shuping Zhang , Institue of Ecology and
Biodiversity, Shandong University, April
2014
Outline
• Background
• Questions
• Methods
• Results
• Discussion and conclusions
• New questions
Discussion and conclusion
1. The factors impact growth and reproduction: climate,
soil nutrients, moisture and salinity, management and
age of the shrub patches, local genetic variation.
2. Standing genetic diversity from multiple introduction
has an effects on adaptive potential.
3. Historical artificial selection and management may act
as important factors driving population dynamics
Discussion and conclusion
1. The factors impact growth and reproduction: climate,
soil nutrients, moisture and salinity, management and
age of the shrub patches, local genetic variation.
2. Standing genetic diversity from multiple introduction
has an effects on adaptive potential.
3. Historical artificial selection and management may act
as important factors driving population dynamics
100
60
40
68
20
Seed number per hip
80
44
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
Length width ratio of hip
By Shuping Zhang , Institue of Ecology and
Biodiversity, Shandong University, April
From Kelager et al, 2012
Conclusion
 Does Rosa rugosa Thunb. perform better in NW Europe than
in China?
Yes.
 What are differences in growth and reproduction between the
invasive populations of NW Europe than in the declining
populations of China?
All measured traits were significantly higher in the invasive
population than in the declining populations of China.
 Do all population and shrubs within populations present
similar growth and reproduction?
No, There are some specific populations and shrubs presenting
significantly high growth and reproduction.
Take an adventure in ecology and
evolution of invasive plants
• What is plant invasion?
• What happened with the performance related
traits of invasive species?
• How do invasive plant species adapt to and
evolve in a novel environment?
• Standing genetic diversity? High phenotypic
plasticity? Novel genetic variation? Epigenetic
variation?
By Shuping Zhang , Institue of Ecology and
Biodiversity, Shandong University, April
2014
Go through the selected papers and
discuss on
• What is the hypothesis of the paper?
• What methods did the researchers use?
• What was the sampling strategy, experiment
design or/and data analysis methods?
• What are the main conclusions?
By Shuping Zhang , Institue of Ecology and
Biodiversity, Shandong University, April
2014