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Transcript
Ch.1 The Science of
Biology
OCC BIO 114
Created by Dave Werner
What is Biology?
• “Bio”=Life, “ology”=Study of, so Biology
is the study of life.
• Biologists are interested in Nature.
• Discoveries from atoms to organisms.
• Discovered a great pattern of
Organization.
• Take a look at p.3, figure 1.1
Figure 1.1
• A. atoms=smallest units of
nature’s substances:
electrons, protons, nuetrons
• B. molecules=carbohydrates,
lipids, proteins, DNA, RNA
Figure 1.1
• C. Cells=smallest units of life, make up
species
• D. Tissue=made of cells
(picture-mouse kidney)
Figure 1.1
• E. Organ=made of tissues
• F. Oran System=organs
working together
ex: skin
Figure 1.1
• G. Multicelled Organism=
• H. Population=group of individuals of
the same species occupying a specified
area.
Figure 1.1
• I. Community=all populations of all
species occupying a specified area.
• Ecosystem=a community interacting
with its physical and chemical
environment. Ex: estuary
Figure 1.1
• K. Biosphere=all regions of Earth’s
waters, crust, and atmosphere that hold
organisms.
Overview of Life’s Unity
• Energy and Life’s Organization-All living things
depend on Energy
• Energy transfer involves producers and consumers
Organisms Sense & Respond
to Change
• Use Receptors to help
• Must maintain Homeostasis
Organisms grow and
reproduce
• DNA= Signature
molecule of life
• Transmitted through
inheritance
• Reproduction &
Development
• Differentiation of
cells during
embryonic
development
If So Much Unity, Why So
Many Species?
• Life’s Classification - created by Carolus
Linnaeus - genus species
• Ex: Calinectes sapidus
• TWO major Domains - Can you name them?
• Prokaryotes - Bacteria (Archae & Eubacteria)
• Eukaryotes - Protists, Fungi, Plantae & Animals
Section 1.3 An Evolutionary
View of Diversity
• How can organisms be so
much alike and still show
tremendous diversity?
• One theory is Evolution by way
of Natural Selection
• Who developed the theory of
Natural Selection?
• Charles Darwin
• What is your idea of
Evolution?
• Figure 1.10
Natural Selection/Evolution
The Nature of Biological
Inquiry
• Scientific Method fig. 1.3
1. Observations
2. Hypothesis
3. Prediction - If, then statement
4. Test/Experiment
5. Conclusion
6. Repeat
The Power of Experimental
Tests
• Experiments are tests that can simplify
observation in nature, b/c conditions
under which observations are made can
be controlled.
• Well-designed experiments test
predictions about what you will find in
nature when a hypothesis is correct-or
won’t find if it is wrong.
Experiments
• Variable-feature of an object or event
of interest that may differ over time and
among individuals.
• Control Group - a standard against
• Experimental Groups
Example of Experimental
Design
• 1996- FDA approved Olestra, a
synthetic fat replacement made from
sugar and vegetable oil, as a food
additive.
• Complaints of bad cramps
• Experiment - 1,100 people
• Control group=17.6% w/ cramps
• Experimantal group=15.8% w/
cramps
• How would you explain the results?
• Results yielded no evidence of Olestra
chips causing cramps.
Field Experiments (fig. 1.11)
• Mimicry was tested with
two species of
butterflies.
• Birds avoid eating toxic
butterflies (yellow
markings on wings)
• Found that Yellow-free
winged butterflies were
eaten
• Also provides evidence of
N.S. in action.
The Limits of Science
• “Explanations about
nature must be
testable in the
external world, in
ways that others can
repeat.”
Where will we go this
semester?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Chemistry/Molecules of Life
Cell Structure and Function
Cell Membranes/Diffusion & Osmosis
Metabolism
Photosynthesis/ Cell Respiration
Cell Reproduction
Plant Structure and Function
Bacteria
Algae