Download Topic 20-Behavioral Adaptations to the Environment

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Transcript
Chapter 35
Behavioral Adaptations to the
Environment
PowerPoint Lectures for
Biology: Concepts and Connections, Fifth Edition
– Campbell, Reece, Taylor, and Simon
Lectures by Chris Romero
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Leaping Herds of Herbivores
• Impalas of the African savanna
–
Are very successful as a population, despite
heavy pressure from predators
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Impalas exhibit protective behaviors such as grouping
–
To protect from the numerous carnivores
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF BEHAVIOR
35.1 Behavioral ecologists ask both proximate and
ultimate questions
• Behavior
– Is everything an animal does and how it does
it
Figure 35.1
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Behavioral ecology
– Studies behavior in an evolutionary
context
• Behavioral ecologists
– Consider proximate questions, which
focus on the immediate causes of
behavior
– Consider ultimate questions, which focus
on the evolutionary causes of behavior
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Natural selection
– Preserves behaviors that enhance fitness
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
35.2 Early behaviorists used experiments to
study fixed action patterns
• Lorenz and Tinbergen were the first to
demonstrate the importance of innate behavior
– Which is performed the same way by all
members of a species
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Fixed action patterns (FAPs)
–
Are innate behaviors that exhibit
unchangeable sequences
–
Ensure that activities essential to survival
are performed correctly without practice
Figure 35.2
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Sign stimuli
– Are simple cues that trigger fixed action
patterns
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
35.3 Behavior is the result of both genes and
environmental factors
• Certain behaviors in prairie voles
–
Are under relatively strong genetic control
Figure 35.3A
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Studies have shown differences in oxytocin
(a hormone) receptors
– In the brains of female monogamous
prairie voles and promiscuous montane
voles
Figure 35.3B
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
LEARNING
35.4 Learning ranges from simple behavioral
changes to complex problem solving
• Learning
–
Is a change in behavior resulting from
experience
Table 35.4
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Habituation
– Is learning to ignore a repeated,
unimportant stimulus
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
35.5 Imprinting is learning that involves innate
behavior and experience
• Imprinting
–
Is irreversible learning limited to a sensitive
period
Figure 35.5A
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• For many kinds of birds
–
Imprinting plays a role in song development
Figure 35.5B
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
CONNECTION
35.6 Imprinting poses problems and opportunities for
conservation programs
• Captive breeding programs for endangered species
–
Must provide proper imprinting models
Figure 35.6
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
35.7 Animal movement may be a simple
response to stimuli or involve spatial learning
• A kinesis
– Is a random movement in response to a
stimulus
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• A taxis
– Is a more or less automatic movement
directed toward or away from a stimulus
Direction
of river
current
Figure 35.7A
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Spatial learning
–
Involves using landmarks to move through
the environment
–
Is more complex than kineses or taxes
Nest
1
No nest
Nest
2
Nest
Figure 35.7B
3
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
No nest
35.8 Movements of animals may depend on
internal maps
• Cognitive maps
– Are internal representations of spatial
relationships of objects in the
surroundings
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Migratory animals may move between areas
– Using the sun, stars, landmarks, or other
cues
Paper
Ink pad
Figure 35.8
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Funnelshaped
cage
35.9 Animals may learn to associate a stimulus
or behavior with a response
• In associative learning
– An animal learns that a particular
stimulus or a particular response is
linked to a reward or punishment
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• In trial-and-error learning
–
An animal learns to associate one of its own
behavioral acts with a positive or negative
effect
Figure 35.9
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
35.10 Social learning involves observation and
imitation of others
• Social learning involves changes in behavior
–
That result from the observation and
imitation of others
Figure 35.10
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
35.11 Problem-solving behavior relies on
cognition
• Cognition is the ability of an animal’s nervous
system
– To perceive, store, process, and use
information
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Some animals exhibit problem-solving behavior
–
Which involves complex cognitive processes
Figure 35.11A, B
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
FORAGING AND MATING BEHAVIORS
35.12 Behavioral ecologists use cost-benefit
analysis in studying foraging
• Foraging includes
– Identifying, obtaining, and eating food
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Some animals are generalists
–
Eating just about anything that is readily
available
Figure 35.12A
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Other animals are specialists
– Eating only specific available foods
Figure 35.12B
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Optimal foraging theory predicts that an
animal’s feeding behavior
– Will maximize energy gain and minimize
energy expenditure and risk
Figure 35.12C
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
35.13 Mating behaviors enhance reproductive
success
• Mating systems may be
– Promiscuous, monogamous, or
polygamous
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• The needs of offspring and certainty of paternity
– Help explain differences in mating
systems and parental care by males
Figure 35.13
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
35.14 Mating behavior often involves elaborate courtship
rituals
• Courtship rituals
–
Advertise the species, sex, and physical
condition of males
1
2
3
Figure 35.14A
4
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• In some species, courtship is a group activity
–
In which members of one or both sexes
choose mates from a group of candidates
Figure 35.14B
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND SOCIOBIOLOGY
35.15 Sociobiology places social behavior in an
evolutionary context
• Sociobiology studies social behavior
– The interactions of two or more animals,
in an evolutionary sense
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
35.16 Territorial behavior parcels space and
resources
• Animals exhibiting this behavior
–
Mark and defend their territories
Figure 35.16A, B
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
35.17 Rituals involving agonistic behavior often
resolve confrontations between competitors
• Agonistic behavior, including threat, rituals, and
sometimes combat
–
Settles disputes over resources
Figure 35.17
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
35.18 Dominance hierarchies are maintained by
agonistic behavior
• Dominance hierarchies
–
Partition resources among members of a
social group
Figure 35.18
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
TALKING ABOUT SCIENCE
35.19 Behavioral biologist Jane Goodall
discusses dominance hierarchies and
reconciliation behavior in chimpanzees
Figure 35.19A
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Chimpanzees
– Exhibit dominance hierarchies and
reconciliation behavior
Figure 35.19B
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
35.20 Social behavior requires communication
between animals
• Signaling in the form of sounds, scents, displays, or
touches
–
Provides communication needed for social
behavior
Figure 35.20A, B
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
35.21 Altruistic acts can often be explained by the
concept of inclusive fitness
• Altruism is defined as behavior that reduces an
individual’s fitness
–
While increasing the fitness of others in the
population
Figure 35.21A
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Altruism can usually be explained by inclusive
fitness and kin selection
– An animal can propagate its own genes
by helping relatives reproduce
Figure 35.21B
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• In reciprocal altruism
– Individuals do favors that may later be
repaid
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
CONNECTION
35.22 Both genes and culture contribute to
human social behavior
• Human behavior
– Has a genetic basis but is quite variable
– Is strongly influenced by learning and
culture
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Research has suggested that human partners
with similar interests
– Are more likely to have long, stable
relationships
Figure 35.22
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
TALKING ABOUT SCIENCE
35.23 Edward O. Wilson promoted the field of
sociobiology and is a leading conservation activist
• According to sociobiologist Edward O. Wilson
–
Natural selection underlies many human
behaviors, including behaviors that have led
to our current biodiversity crisis
Figure 35.23
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings