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Transcript
CHAPTER 52
POPULATION ECOLOGY
Section D: Population-Limiting Factors
1. Negative feedback prevents unlimited population growth
2. Population dynamics reflect a complex interaction of biotic and abiotic
influences
3. Some populations have regular boom-and-bust cycles
Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Introduction
• Why do all populations eventually stop growing?
• What environmental factors stop a population from
growing?
• The first step to answering these questions is to
examine the effects of increased population density.
Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Density-dependent factors
increase their affect on a
population as population
density increases.
• This is a type of negative
feedback.
• Density-independent
factors
are unrelated to population
density, and there is no
feedback to slow population
growth.
Fig. 52.13
Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
1. Negative feedback prevents unlimited
population growth
• A variety of factors can cause negative feedback.
• Resource limitation in crowded populations can stop
population growth by reducing reproduction.
Fig.52.14
Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Intraspecific competition for food can also cause
density-dependent behavior of populations.
• Territoriality, defense of a space, may set a limit
on density.
• Predation may
also be a factor
because it
can cause
mortality of
prey species.
Fig. 52.15
Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Waste accumulation is another component that
can regulate population size.
• In wine, as yeast populations increase, they
make more alcohol during fermentation.
• However, yeast can only withstand an alcohol
percentage of approximately 13% before they
begin to die.
• Disease can also regulate population growth,
because it spreads more rapidly in dense
populations.
Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
2. Population dynamics reflect a complex
interaction of biotic and abiotic influences
• Carrying capacity can vary.
• Year-to-year data can be helpful in analyzing
population growth.
Fig. 52.16
Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Some populations fluctuate erratically, based on
many factors.
Fig. 52.18
Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Other populations have regular boom-and-bust
cycles.
• There are populations that fluctuate greatly.
• A good example involves the lynx and
snowshoe hare that cycle on a ten year basis.
Fig. 52.19
Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings