The Characteristics of Living Things The Characteristics of Living Things • • • • • • • • Great Complexity & Cellular Organization Reproduction & Development Responds with the Environment Metabolism Capacity for growth Homeostasis Heredity Evolution (Adaptation) • • • • • • • • • • • • Atoms Molecules Organelles Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems Organisms Populations Communities Ecosystems Biosphere Some Elements Simple Inorganic Molecules • • • • • Water (H2O) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Molecular Oxygen (O2) Ammonium (NH3) Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Biological Compounds Categories: Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic Acids Cell Organelles nucleus smooth ER mitochondria rough ER golgi Cells Nerve cell Blood cell Osteocyte Muscle cell Levels of Body Organization carbon atom DNA molecule organelle cell tissue biosphere ecosystem organ organ system community population organism Prokaryotic Cell Eukaryotic Animal Cell Eukaryotic Plant Cell Classification: Six kingdom system : Eubacteria E. coli Archaebacteria Cyanobacteria Protista Paramecium Plantae Fungi Animalia Diatom Slime mold Asexual Reproduction Coral polyp budding Sexual Reproduction Development Both Sexual & Asexual Interaction with the environment –Living things interact with each other and with the environment –Ecology – the study of these interactions • Hawaiian Monk seals eat fish • Humans eat fish • What if something happened to the fish? Interaction with the Environment Metabolism The sum total of the chemical processes that occur in living organisms, resulting in growth, production of energy, elimination of waste material, etc. • Anabolism- build up of complex molecules • Catabolism- break down of complex molecules Cellular Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 6H2O + 6CO2 + energy Photosynthesis 6H2O + 6CO2 + light C6H12O6 + 6O2 Growth • Organisms require a source of food to provide energy for growth Autotrophs • Organisms that make their own food (like plants, some protists, and some bacteria) • Plants capture energy from the sun, use water and carbon dioxide to make sugars and starches Photosynthesis Chemosynthesis Heterotrophs • Organisms that take in food to meet their energy needs • Animals must consume autotrophs (plants), and other heterotrophs to meet their energy needs Homeostasis 1. Maintenance of constant internal conditions in varying environments 2. Adaptation of organisms to specific environments Homeostasis Three big problems 1. Obtaining energy and nutrients 2. Maintaining temperature 3. Obtaining and holding onto water Body Temperature Regulation Temperature Control Ectotherms (Poikilotherms) • Generate body heat metabolically, but cannot maintain constant internal body temperature • Body temperature mimics the surrounding environment Ectotherms Most ectotherms regulate their body temperature by • basking • moving between shade/sun • being active at certain times of day Temperature Control Endotherms (homeothermic) • Generate body heat metabolically and body temperature does not match the temperature of the surrounding environment • These organisms retain metabolic heat and can control metabolism to maintain a constant internal temperature Heredity • Transmission of characteristics from parent to offspring • Instructions from parent to offspring are passed on in the form of genes DNA Contains information for almost all cell activities Heritable variations Banding pattern Dwarfism Eye color Blood type Beak Depth Evolution Change in the genetic composition of a population through time Mechanisms Contributing to Evolutionary Change • Production of heritable variations • Natural Selection • Chance Adaptations The structural, functional, and behavioral features that contribute to the success of a species.