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Transcript
The Characteristics
of Living Things
The Characteristics of
Living Things
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Great Complexity & Cellular Organization
Reproduction & Development
Responds with the Environment
Metabolism
Capacity for growth
Homeostasis
Heredity
Evolution (Adaptation)
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Atoms
Molecules
Organelles
Cells
Tissues
Organs
Organ Systems
Organisms
Populations
Communities
Ecosystems
Biosphere
Some Elements
Simple Inorganic Molecules
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Water (H2O)
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Molecular Oxygen (O2)
Ammonium (NH3)
Sodium Chloride (NaCl)
Biological Compounds
Categories:
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Lipids
Nucleic Acids
Cell Organelles
nucleus
smooth ER
mitochondria
rough ER
golgi
Cells
Nerve cell
Blood cell
Osteocyte
Muscle cell
Levels of Body Organization
carbon
atom
DNA
molecule
organelle
cell
tissue
biosphere
ecosystem
organ
organ
system
community
population
organism
Prokaryotic Cell
Eukaryotic
Animal Cell
Eukaryotic
Plant Cell
Classification: Six kingdom system
:
Eubacteria
E. coli
Archaebacteria
Cyanobacteria
Protista
Paramecium
Plantae
Fungi
Animalia
Diatom
Slime mold
Asexual Reproduction
Coral polyp budding
Sexual Reproduction
Development
Both Sexual & Asexual
Interaction with the environment
–Living things interact with each
other and with the environment
–Ecology – the study of these
interactions
• Hawaiian Monk seals eat fish
• Humans eat fish
• What if something happened to the
fish?
Interaction with the Environment
Metabolism
The sum total of the chemical processes
that occur in living organisms, resulting
in growth, production of energy,
elimination of waste material, etc.
• Anabolism- build up of complex
molecules
• Catabolism- break down of complex
molecules
Cellular Respiration
C6H12O6 + 6O2  6H2O + 6CO2 + energy
Photosynthesis
6H2O + 6CO2 + light  C6H12O6 + 6O2
Growth
• Organisms require a source of food to
provide energy for growth
Autotrophs
• Organisms that make their own food (like
plants, some protists, and some bacteria)
• Plants capture energy from the sun, use
water and carbon dioxide to make sugars and
starches
Photosynthesis
Chemosynthesis
Heterotrophs
• Organisms that take
in food to meet their
energy needs
• Animals must
consume autotrophs
(plants), and other
heterotrophs to meet
their energy needs
Homeostasis
1. Maintenance of constant
internal conditions in varying
environments
2. Adaptation of organisms to
specific environments
Homeostasis
Three big problems
1. Obtaining energy and nutrients
2. Maintaining temperature
3. Obtaining and holding onto
water
Body Temperature Regulation
Temperature Control
Ectotherms (Poikilotherms)
• Generate body heat metabolically, but
cannot maintain constant internal body
temperature
• Body temperature mimics the
surrounding environment
Ectotherms
Most ectotherms regulate their body
temperature by
• basking
• moving between shade/sun
• being active at certain times of day
Temperature Control
Endotherms (homeothermic)
• Generate body heat metabolically and
body temperature does not match the
temperature of the surrounding
environment
• These organisms retain metabolic heat
and can control metabolism to maintain
a constant internal temperature
Heredity
• Transmission of
characteristics from parent to
offspring
• Instructions from parent to
offspring are passed on in
the form of genes
DNA
Contains
information for
almost all cell
activities
Heritable variations
Banding pattern
Dwarfism
Eye color
Blood type
Beak Depth
Evolution
Change in the genetic
composition of a population
through time
Mechanisms Contributing to
Evolutionary Change
• Production of heritable
variations
• Natural Selection
• Chance
Adaptations
The structural, functional, and
behavioral features that contribute
to the success of a species.