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Transcript
Nanoscience
Nanotechnology
What is it?
What exactly is Nanoscience?
What exactly is Nanotechnology?
Are they Different?
Vials of
Quantum
Dots
NOTE: What follows is my view of
these subjects
What is Nanotechnology?
The Space
Elevator?
Ultra high
strength
materials allow
tower to be built
into space !(?)
What is Nanotechnology?
Tiny machines
in your body
curing cancer?
What is Nanotechnology?
DNA Computers in a beaker that
vastly outperform our fastest
supercomputers?
Well …. Sort of…. Not Really….
• Some of these amazing views of
the future have a grain of reality in
them
• We’ll take a look at advances in
–Materials science
–Nanobiotech
–Molecular computing
Nanotechnology
TECHNOLOGIES
Nanomaterials
Nanolithography
Scanning Probe
Microscopy
Self-Assembly
APPLICATIONS
Super fast/small computers
Super strong materials
Super Slippery Materials
Tissue Engineering
Drug Delivery
Sensors
Materials Science: Nanomaterials
Human Made
Materials
Biologically
made materials
Calcium Carbonate
Silica
Calcium phosphate
Hydroxyapatite
Calcite
10 mm
Superhydrophobic Surfaces:
The Lotus Effect
Carbon
Nanotubes
CHIN WEE SHONG : AgS2 cubes
National University of Singapore
Department of Chemistry
Quantum dots
Carbon Nanotubes
Buckminster
Fullerene C60
Smalley, Curl,
Kroto. Nobel Prize
The Forms of Carbon
Diamond
Buckyball
Graphite
Graphein: (Greek) to write
Nanotube
Carbon Nanotubes:
Cylinders of Sheet Lattices
Nanotubes have chirality
Multiwall CNT=Nested tubes
What’s the big deal
about carbon
nanotubes???
• Amazing Mechanical Properties
• Amazing Electrical Properties:
– Can be conductors or semiconductors
– Could be the building block of nanocomputing
Applications:
Composite Materials
nanotubes poking out of
fractured edge of polymer
composite
Applications:
Electronics
21 APRIL 2000 VOL 288 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org
Crossed Nanotube Junctions
M. S. Fuhrer,1 J. Nyg.rd,1 L. Shih,1 M. Forero,1 Young-Gui Yoon,1
M. S. C. Mazzoni,1 Hyoung Joon Choi,2 Jisoon Ihm,2
Steven G. Louie,1 A. Zettl,1 Paul L. McEuen1
*
Applications: Field
Emission 1
Samsung prototype carbon
nanotube display
Applications: Field
Emission 2
Otto Zhou. UNC Physics
Cold Cathode X-ray machine
The potential advantages of the
future CNT X-ray devices are fast
response time, programmable xray
intensity, programmable spatial
distribution (Figure 3), ultra-fine
focal spot, rapid pulsation
capacity, long lifetime, low energy
consumption, miniaturization, and
low cost.
Quantum Dots
Microfluidics
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)
Myosin V/ Actin Motor
Myosin V
Molecular Motors
Use ATP to do Mechanical Work
Advanced Techniques
• Scanning
ProbeMicroscopy
• Lithography
Why Nano now?
What has enabled Nanoscience?
An incomplete list . . . .
• Advances in Computing Power
• New Generation of Scientific Instruments
Scanning Probe Microscopes
Scanning Tunneling Mic. (STM)
Very Sharp Tip scans over
sample surface
Atomic Force Mic. (AFM)
Magnetic Force Mic. (MFM)
Near Field Scanning Optical Mic. (NSOM)
ATOMIC RESOLUTION
STM, Imaging
- Battery +
Current
Tunneling Current
Sample
Sample
STM images, Examples
http://cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/hillchem3/medialib/media_portfolio/07.html
Atomic Force Microscopy
LASER
LASER
Detector
Mirror
Computer
Microscope
Tip
Sample Surface scanned back and forth
Display
AFM, (sub)atomic resolution
Nanoguitar
Craighead Group, Cornell
What is Nano??
• Nano refers to the scale of
nanometers.
• This is the scale of molecules,
proteins, and other nanoobjects that are the topics of
this course.
How big is nano?
• Nano means one billionth (x 10-9)
• Written another way: x 0.000000001
• One nanometer equals
0.000000001 meters
(or 0.000000003 feet)
One Nanometer
H
H
O
H
N
H
N
O
O
One Nanometer
Water (H20)
DNA
Small
Protein
One Nanometer
Water (H20)
Quantum
Dot
Carbon
Nanotube
What is matter made of?
Atoms
Molecules
What are atoms ?
How big are they?
How well can we “see” them?
• Atoms are roughly 2-5 Angstroms in dimension
2-5 * 10 -10 m
~1Ǻ
Take a millimeter and divide it into 1000 parts:
micron 10-6 m
Take one micron and divide it into 1000 parts:
nanometer 10-9 m
Take one nanometer and divide in 10 parts:
angstrom 10-10 m
Atoms
Electrons
Protons
electrical charge= +e
electrical charge= -e
Bohr Model
Neutrons
Electronic Orbitals:
The wave mechanical
model of atoms
S-Orbital
P-Orbital
D-Orbital
F-Orbital
S-Orbital
P-Orbital
D-Orbital
F-Orbital
Galactic Scale
Nano: The Middle Ground
“Macroscopic” Scale
“Microscopic” Scale
Nanoscale
Subatomic scale:
Nuclear Physics
Partical Physics
atoms
Molecular / Atomic Scale
Nano: The Middle Ground
?
?
?
What is Nanoscience?
How is nanoscience
different than
•Chemistry
•Biology
•Physics
Eigler et al. NATURE 363, 1993
What distinguishes
nanoscience from other
sciences?
The study of
nanometer
scale things?
DNA
Carbon
Nanotubes
Water
Isn’t this just
Biology and
Chemistry??
YES … and NO.
Chemistry done in
beakers (many billions
of molecules)
Nanoscience
• Studying INDIVIDUAL
nanometer scale things
Observation
Experiment/Manipulation
Can Scientists really do
this now?
Don Eigler, IBM
Iron atoms on a copper surface
Atomic Manipulation
Scanning
Probe Tip
Atom
Handmaking Molecules!
Wilson Ho
UC, Irvine.
Nanoscience vs.
Nanotechnology
Nanoscience: exploring
and studying the
properties of the
nanoscale
Applying the unique
properties of the
nanoscale to technology
Why Nano now?
What has enabled Nanoscience?
An incomplete list . . . .
• Advances in Computing Power
• New Generation of Scientific Instruments
Scanning Probe Microscopes
Scanning Tunneling Mic. (STM)
Very Sharp Tip scans over
sample surface
Atomic Force Mic. (AFM)
Magnetic Force Mic. (MFM)
Near Field Scanning Optical Mic. (NSOM)
ATOMIC RESOLUTION
Scanning Probe Mic:
Sharp tip
Sharp tip
moves over
surface and
measures
some property
Scanning
Probe Tip
Sample
Sample
STM, Nobel Prize 1986
Binnig and Rohrer
STM images,
Examples
http://cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/hillchem3/medialib/media_portfolio/07.html
AFM images:
Adenovirus
Viral DNA
Atsuko Negishi
UNC Mat. Sci.
Titin unfolding
Titin
http://www.ks.uiuc.edu/Research
/smd_imd/titin/
Pulling Titin 2
Images and
Manipulation of DNA !
Departmento Física de la
Materia Condensada UAM
Asylum Research
http://www.nihms.nih.gov
Nanocalc A
1.
2.
3.
4.
How many atoms in your piece of Aluminum?
How big is an Aluminum Atom?
How many atoms on the surface of the piece?
What is the ratio of surface atoms to volume
atoms?
5. If your piece was 10nm*10nm*10nm what
would the ratio be?
6. If your piece was a sphere of 2nm radius what
would the ratio be?
Nanocalc B
Lets say you have a cube of solid material 1 m on a side.
A. What is the total surface area?
B. If you split it into cubes 0.5 m on a side, what is the total
surface area of all the pieces?
C. If you split into cubes 1 mm (10-3m) on a side, what is the
total surface area?
D. If you split inot cubes 1 micron on a side (10-6m) what is
the total surface area?
E. If you split into cubes 1 nanometer (10-9m) what is the total
surface area?
(for each answer, try to come up with an intuitive way of
describing the area : tennis courts, football fields etc.)
27Al makes up 100% of naturally occurring Al
Atomic mass : 26.9815 amu
13 protons
14 neutrons