... Hell, 2010). This can be realized with laser beams where the ﬂuorophores are
ﬁrst exposed to an excitation laser pulse and directly afterward by a STED laser
pulse. In addition to the ﬂuorescence lifetime, τ ﬂ (typically ∼2 ns), vibrational
relaxation lifetimes, τ vib (typically <1 ps), and nonlinea ...