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Period Packets – Period 7: 1890 - 1945
Unit 7 – Chapters 27-30
Unit 8 – Chapters 31-35
Included in Each Period Packet:
Key Concepts – an overview of what you need to know
Main Themes – how the seven themes of the course apply to this period
Vocabulary – important terms, people, places, etc.
Chapter Reading Guide – pretty straight forward…
Crash Course Guide – video guide to watch (they will be amazingly helpful)
Review Concept Chart – how to get ready for the test.
PERIOD 7: 1890-1945 - Key Concepts
An increasingly pluralistic United States faced profound domestic and global challenges, debated the proper degree of
government activism, and sought to define its international role.
Key Concept 1: Government, political and social organizations struggled to address the effects of large-scale
industrialization, economic uncertainty, and related social changes such as urbanization and mass migration.
The continued growth and consolidation of large corporations transformed American society and the nation’s economy,
promoting urbanization and economic growth, even as business cycle fluctuations became increasingly severe.
Large corporations came to dominate the U.S economy as it increasingly focused on the production of consumer goods,
driven by new technologies and manufacturing techniques.
The United States continued its transition from a rural, agricultural society to an urban, industrial one, offering new
economic opportunities for women, internal migrants and international migrants who continued to flock to the United
Even as economic growth continued, episodes of credit and market instability, most critically the Great Depression, led
to calls for the creation of a stronger financial regulatory system.
Progressive reformers responded to economic instability, social inequality and political corruption by calling for government
intervention in the economy, expanded democracy, greater social justice and conservation of natural resources.
In the late 1890s and early years of the twentieth century, journalists and Progressive reformers — largely urban and
middle class and often female — worked to reform existing social and political institutions at the local, state and federal
levels by creating new organizations aimed at addressing social problems associated with industrial society.
Progressives promoted federal legislation to regulate abuses of the economy and the environment, and many sought to
expand democracy.
III. National, state and local reformers responded to economic upheavals, laissez-faire capitalism, and the Great Depression by
transforming the U.S. into a limited welfare state.
The liberalism of President Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal drew on earlier progressive ideas and represented a
multifaceted approach to both the causes and effects of the Great Depression, using government power to provide
relief to the poor, stimulate recovery and reform the American economy.
Radical, union, and populist movements pushed Roosevelt towards more extensive reforms, even as conservatives in
Congress and the Supreme Court sought to limit the New Deal’s scope.
Although the New Deal did not completely overcome the Depression, it left a legacy of reforms and agencies that
endeavored to make society and individuals more secure, and it helped foster a long-term political realignment in which
many ethnic groups, African Americans, and working-class communities identified with the Democratic Party.
Key Concept 2: A revolution in communications and transportation technology helped to create a new mass culture and
spread “modern” values and ideas, even as cultural conflict between groups increased under the pressure of migration,
world wars, and economic distress.
New technologies led to social transformations that improved the standard of living for many, while contributing to
increased political and cultural conflicts.
New technologies contributed to improved standards of living, greater personal mobility and better communications
Technological change, modernization and changing demographics led to increased political and cultural conflict on
several fronts: tradition versus innovation, urban versus rural, fundamentalist Christianity versus scientific modernism,
management versus labor, native-born versus new immigrants, white versus black, and idealism versus disillusionment.
The rise of an urban, industrial society encouraged the development of a variety of cultural expressions for migrant,
regional, and African American artists (expressed most notably in the Harlem Renaissance movement); it also
contributed to national culture by making shared experiences more possible through art, cinema and the mass media.
The global ramifications of World War I and wartime patriotism and xenophobia, combined with social tensions created by
increased international migration, resulted in legislation restricting immigration from Asia and from Southern and Eastern
World War I created a repressive atmosphere for civil liberties, resulting in official restrictions on freedom of speech.
As labor strikes and racial strife disrupted society, the immediate postwar period witnessed the first “Red Scare,” which
legitimized attacks on radicals and immigrants.
Several acts of Congress established highly restrictive immigration quotas, while national policies continued to permit
unrestricted immigration from nations in the Western Hemisphere, especially Mexico, in order to guarantee an
inexpensive supply of labor.
III. Economic dislocations, social pressures and the economic growth spurred by World Wars I and II led to a greater degree of
migration within the United States as well as migration to the United States from elsewhere in the Western Hemisphere.
While most African Americans remained in the South despite legalized segregation and racial violence, some began a
“Great Migration” out of the South to pursue new economic opportunities offered by World War I.
Many Americans migrated during the Great Depression, often driven by economic difficulties, and during World Wars I
and II, as a result of the need for wartime production labor.
Many Mexicans, drawn to the U.S. by economic opportunities, faced ambivalent government policies in the 1930s and
Key Concept 3: Global conflicts over resources, territories and ideologies renewed debates over the nation’s values and
its role in the world, while simultaneously propelling the United States into a dominant international military, political,
cultural, and economic position.
Many Americans began to advocate overseas expansionism in the late nineteenth century, leading to new territorial
ambitions and acquisitions in the Western Hemisphere and the Pacific.
The perception in the 1890s that the western frontier was “closed,” economic motives, competition with other
European imperialist ventures of the time, and racial theories all furthered arguments that Americans were destined to
expand their culture and norms to others, especially the nonwhite nations of the globe.
The American victory in the Spanish-American War led to the U.S. acquisition of island territories, an expanded
economic and military presence in the Caribbean and Latin America, engagement in a protracted insurrection in the
Philippines, and increased involvement in Asia.
Questions about America’s role in the world generated considerable debate, prompting the development of a wide
variety of views and arguments between imperialists and anti-imperialists, and later, interventionists and isolationists.
World War I and its aftermath intensified debates about the nation’s role in the world and how best to achieve national
security and pursue American interests.
After initial neutrality in World War I the nation entered the conflict, departing from the U.S. foreign policy tradition of
non-involvement in European affairs in response to Woodrow Wilson’s call for the defense of humanitarian and
democratic principles.
Although the American Expeditionary Force played a relatively limited role in the war, Wilson was heavily involved in
postwar negotiations, resulting in the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations, both of which generated
substantial debate within the United States.
In the years following World War I, the United States pursued a unilateral foreign policy that used international
investment, peace treaties and select military intervention to promote a vision of international order, even while
maintaining U.S. isolationism, which continued to the late 1930s.
III. The United States’ involvement in World War II, while opposed by most Americans prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor,
vaulted the United States into global political and military prominence and transformed both American society and the
relationship between the United States and the rest of the world.
The mass mobilization of American society to supply troops for the war effort and a workforce on the home front ended
the Great Depression and provided opportunities for women and minorities to improve their socioeconomic positions.
Wartime experiences, such as the internment of Japanese Americans, challenges to civil liberties, debates over race and
segregation, and the decision to drop the atomic bomb raised questions about American values.
The United States and its Allies achieved victory over the Axis powers through a combination of factors including allied
political and military cooperation, industrial production, technological and scientific advances, and popular commitment
to advancing democratic ideals.
The dominant American role in the Allied victory and postwar peace settlements, combined with the war-ravaged
condition of Asia and Europe, allowed the United States to emerge from the war as the most powerful nation on earth.
PERIOD 7: 1890-1945 - Main Themes
Applied to this period
Fundamentalist Christianity vs. Progressivism – Morality and Role of Women
Ideas about Opportunity! – created hard work, perseverance, self-reliance, rugged individualism
Imperialism vs. Anti-Imperialism ideals
Large gaps between the Rich and Poor – Roaring 20’s, Great Depression
Manifest Destiny outside US borders – Imperialism!
Isolationism vs. Interventionism – WWI and WWII
Racial Equality – CORE, NAACP
Industrialism of the North – use of immigrant and migrant populations as workers
Monopolies and Robberbarons – exploitation of the capitalist system continues
Transportation/Communication – Radio, Movies and Hollywood, Model T, assembly line, Planes
Unions – Progressive Movement vs. 20’s vs. 30’s
Consumerism – installment plans, buying on the margin, overproduction, speculation
Great Depression – Black Tuesday, Hoovervilles, Bonus Army
Economic ideas – Laissez Faire vs. Keynesianism
War Technology – barbed wire, machine guns, mustard gas, planes, radar, sonar, atomic bombs
Continued immigration – Mexican immigration
Increased migration to the cities - The Great Migration, WWII Migration, CORE,
America as a Global Empire – new markets, money = land = power
Tariffs – lots of them!
Progressivism – Muckrakers, referendums, recalls, secret ballot, social justice, worker reform
Roosevelt – the Square Deal, Elkins Act, Trustbusting, Meat Inspection, FDA, Bull
Federal purview of the economy – Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Anti-Trust, FDR’s New Deal – 1st 100
days, the 3 R’s, Alphabet Soup Programs, Huey Long, Social Security, Court Packing,
WWI – Central Powers vs. Allies, U-boats, Zimmerman Note, Committee of Public Information, War
Industries Board
Post WWI Isolationism – Kellogg Briand Pact, Dawes Plan
Expansion of Presidential powers – T. Roosevelt vs FD Roosevelt.
WWII - Neutrality…then Lend Lease, Conscription, War Production Board, Office of Price Admin, WAC’s
Limitation of Civil Liberties – WWI (Scheck vs. US) and WWII (Japanese Internment)
Work, Exchange, and
Politics and Power
America in the World
American Imperialism – Annexation of Hawaii, Spanish-American War, Teller and Platt Amendments, Open
Environment and
Ideas, Beliefs, and Culture
Door Policy, Boxer Rebellion, Panama Canal, Poncho Villa Raids
Diplomacy styles – Roosevelt’s Big Stick (Roosevelt Corollary), Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy, Wilson’s Moral
WWI – Doughboys/AEF, Fourteen Points Speech, Treaty of Versailles, League of Nations
WWII – Atlantic Charter, Pearl Harbor, Midway, D-Day, Iwo Jima and Okinawa, Atomic Bombs
Industrialization of the North – pollution, urbanization, deforestation
Western Conservation – Roosevelt’s role, National Parks
Depression in the West – Dust Bowl
War impact – Pearl Harbor destruction
Racism/Ethnocentrism – Jingoism, KKK, Red Scare, immigration quotas
Women – Temperance/18th amendment and Suffrage Movement/19th amendment.
New forms of entertainment – Movies, Speakeasies, baseball, flappers!
Crime – bootlegging, gangsters/Mobs
Artistic movements – Jazz, Harlem Renaissance, Modernism, Lost Generation
Scientific Ideas – Evolution vs. Creationism, Scopes Trial
Christian Ideas – Tradition vs. Progressivism, Fundamentalism
PERIOD 7: 1890-1945 - Vocabulary
For each packet, you must be able to IDENTIFY and EXPLAIN THE CONTEXTUAL SIGNIFNICANCE of each term below. These
may or may not be in the book. Use other resources (online) to accomplish this if necessary.
Great Depression
limited welfare state
urban v. rural
Fundamentalist Christianity v. scientific modernist
Harlem Renaissance
Red Scare
Spanish-American War
Woodrow Wilson
League of Nations
Pearl Harbor
Progressive reformers
New Deal
Management v. labor
white v. black
“Great Migration”
American Expeditionary Force
unilateral foreign policy
laissez-faire capitalism
tradition v. innovation
native born v. new immigrant
idealism v. disillusionment
freedom of speech
closing of the frontier
Treaty of Versailles
PERIOD 7: 1890-1945 (Unit 7) - Reading Guide (Chapter Twenty-Seven)
Answer the following questions fully and completely.
What are the social, economic, and political reasons for US Imperialism? Be sure to provide one specific contextual evidence for
each reason category.
2. In one concise sentence, summarize “Spurning the Hawaiian Pear.”
3. Complete the chart of the “Splendid Little War.”
How it perpetuates the oppression of African
Americans in the South?
The Cuban Revolution
Maine Explosion
Yellow Journalism
Invasion of Manila
The Rough Riders
4. Analyze the political cartoon on page 617. Write one sentence in response to this image that promotes the beliefs of the Antiimperialism League.
5. Create a four way-contrasting graphic organizer illustrating the ways in which America acted as an imperial power in Puerto
Rico, Cuba, the Philippines, and China. Be sure to include the Foraker Act, the Platt Amendment, the White Man’s Burden, Open
Door Policy, and the Boxer Rebellion in your comparison.
6. How did Theodore Roosevelt promote America as a Global Imperialist power? Be sure to include Big Stick Diplomacy, the
Roosevelt Corollary, the Panama Canal, and the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize in your response.
PERIOD 7: 1890-1945 (Unit 7) - Reading Guide (Chapter Twenty-Eight)
Answer the following questions fully and completely.
In two concise sentence, summarize “Progressive Roots.” Be sure to include the term “social Gospel” in your summary sentence.
Describe the muckrakers.” Include the who, what, when, why, how and their significance in starting the Progressive Movement.
Create a detailed outline including the following categories: Goals of the progressive movement, early achievements,
challenges, and the role of women in the movement. Use pages 641, 644-647.
4. Complete the follow chart on Teddy Roosevelt’s role in the Progressive movement.
Roosevelt using his “Bully Pulpit” Details
Associated Goal and how?
The Square Deal
The Elkins Act
The Meat Inspection Act
The Pure Food and Drug Act
5. Examine the political cartoons on pages 656 and 657 and answer the following question. How did the legacy of Roosevelt impact
the ability for Taft to have a successful presidency?
6. After reading about Taft’s presidency on pages 657-9, make a statement in defense of Taft’s decisions while in office. Address
either his foreign policy, role as a trustbuster, or tariffs in your supporting statement.
PERIOD 7: 1890-1945 (Unit 7) - Reading Guide (Chapter Twenty-Nine)
Answer the following questions fully and completely.
After examination of the political cartoon on page 662, explain the election of 1912. Be sure to identify and briefly explain the
three animals in the political cartoon in your response.
Create a network tree graphic organizer about Wilson as President. Include the main categories of domestic and foreign policy.
Include the following sub categories: tax reform, banking reform, trustbusting, workers’ rights, Moral Diplomacy, Relations with
Mexico, and the start of WWI. Each subcategory should have contextual support (hint: look for bolded terms).
Analyze the two tables on page 671 and answer the following question. How was Wilson’s attempts to stay neutral during the
first years of WWI a challenge? You must use both charts in your response!
Explain how Wilson handled the sinking of the Lusitania and its impact on the outcome of the election of 1916.
PERIOD 7: 1890-1945 (Unit 7) - Reading Guide (Chapter Thirty)
Answer the following questions fully and completely.
1. In one concise sentence, summarize “War by of Germany.”
2. Complete the chart on US mobilization for the war effort:
War Mobilization
How it supported the war effort?
American Expeditionary Force/
Doughboys (USE PPT)
Committee of Public Information
“Over there”
Espionage Act
Schenck v. US
War Industries Board
National War Labor Board
3. Create a T chart comparing the dissidence that existed during the war in regards to labor reform and women’s suffrage? Include
their goals, strategies, leaders, and outcomes (effective or ineffective).
4. How did war time propaganda support the war effort at home? Be sure to use the image on page 686 to support your response
in addition to content from page 687-8.
5. Create a diagram illustrating how trench warfare works. Be sure to include strategies, weaponry, and main reasons for death in
your illustration.
6. Make an argumentative statement in support of the Fourteen Points speech’s (page 680) goals in terms of ending the war.
Then, make an argumentative statement in support of the Treaty of Versailles’s (page 680) goals in terms of ending the war.
7. Why did America not join the League of Nations, and who were the opposing leaders on each side of this issue?
PERIOD 7: 1890-1945 (Unit 8) - Reading Guide (Chapter Thirty-One)
Answer the following questions fully and completely.
1. Complete the chart on antiforeignism in the 1920’s:
Areas of Discrimination
What group is discriminated against and how?
The Red Scare
The Palmer Raids
The Sacco and Vanzetti Case
The KKK/Bible Belt
Immigration Act of 1924
2. How did Prohibition promote crime and was doomed to fail? Be sure to include the 18th Amendment, the Volstead Act,
Organized Crime, and bootlegging in your response.
3. In one concise sentence, summarize “Monkey Business in Tennessee.” Be sure to include Fundamentalism in your sentence.
4. What were the causes and effects of increased Mass production of consumer products in the 1920’s?
5. Rate the new inventions of the 1920’s in terms of their overall impact on average Americans. Use these inventions in your
ranking: the airplane, the model T, the radio, motion pictures. Include 2-3 sentences to support your ranking.
6. Create a network tree graphic organizer illustrating new reform and artistic movements in the 1920’s. Be sure to include the
flapper movement, Jazz, the United Negro Improvement Association, modernism, the “Lost Generation”, and the Harlem
Renaissance in your graphic organizer.
7. A famous quote of Calvin Coolidge is “The business of America is business.” How did Coolidge support big business as illustrated
in the political cartoon on page 725? Be specific.
PERIOD 7: 1890-1945 (Unit 8) - Reading Guide (Chapter Thirty-Two)
Answer the following questions fully and completely.
Create a graphic organizer illustrating how post war politics promoted a “Return to Normalcy” (a famous quote of Harding),
hurting minorities and working class domestically and isolationism internationally. Domestically, be sure to include the “Ohio
Gang,” Adkins v. Children’s Hospital, and declining union support. Internationally, be sure to include the Washington
“Disarmament” Conference, the Nine-Power Treaty, the Kellogg-Briand Pact, and Fordney-McCumber Tariff Law.
2. In one concise sentence, summarize “The Stench of Scandal.”
3. Describe the Dawe Plan. Include the who, what, when, why, how and significance.
4. Read the quote on page 742 and answer the following question. How did war time overproduction and mechanization
foreshadow farmer problems in the 1920’s and thus become a leading cause for the Depression? Be specific. Use information
from 734-5 and 740 to help you answer this question.
5. Tell the story of the stock market crash and its immediate effects. Include Black Tuesday, installment plans, farm bankruptcy,
and Hoovervilles in your story.
6. Complete the chart on Hoover’s response to the Great Depression:
Hoover’s Actions (or Inactions)
Its Goal
Help or hurt and how?
“Rugged Individualism”
(see quote on page 744)
The Hoover Dam
Reconstruction Finance Corp.
Response to the Bonus Army
PERIOD 7: 1890-1945 (Unit 8) - Reading Guide (Chapter Thirty-Three)
Answer the following questions fully and completely. – These are not in order of the book…you will need to look throughout
the chapter and use my PowerPoint to answer the questions.
How did Franklin Roosevelt view his role as president in dealing with the Great Depression? Be sure to include the New Deal,
the Brain Trust, the first hundred Days, and the 3 R’s in your response.
2. Complete the chart on FDR’s early New Deal activity:
FDR’s “alphabet soup” programs Details
Which area does it serve and how?
Labor, Unemployment, Banking, Farming
Fair Labor Standards Act
Wagner Act
Social Security Act
3. Explain the opposition that Roosevelt experienced while implementing the New Deal. Be sure to include Huey Long, Father
Conklin, and Court packing in your response.
4. Evaluate and rank the following groups in terms of who was most harshly effected by the Great Depression: Women, African
Americans, Factory laborers, and Farmers. Be sure to address Eleanor Roosevelt, the Black Trust, the CIO, and the Dust Bowl in
your ranking support.
5. Read pages 773-775 and examine political cartoon on page 773. Make a persuasive statement (2-3 sentences) promoting the
idea that the New Deal was harmful to America. Be sure to mention Deficit Spending and Socialism in your response.
PERIOD 7: 1890-1945 (Unit 8) - Reading Guide (Chapter Thirty-Four)
Answer the following questions fully and completely. – These are not in order of the book…you will need to look throughout
the chapter and use my PowerPoint to answer the questions.
1. Complete the chart on 1930’s US Isolationist vs Interventionist activity:
Isolationist or Intervening events Date and Details
Isolationism vs. Interventionism? How?
London Economic Conference
Good Neighbor Policy
Reciprocal Trade Agreements
Johnson Debt Default Act
Neutrality Acts
Abraham Lincoln Brigade
Quarantine Speech
St. Louis Incident
War Refugee Board
Lend Lease Bill
Atlantic Charter
Embargo on Japan
2. Create a color coded timeline of Aggression in the 1920’s and 1930’s based on the actions of the following nations: Germany,
Italy, and Japan (one color per nation). Here are the events to include (and briefly explain) on the timeline: Japan invades
Manchuria, Mussolini creates Fascism, Hitler elected as a Nazi, Italy invades Ethiopia, The Rome Berlin Axis, Japan invades China,
Anschluss with Austria, Germany takes the Sudetenland, the Hitler-Stalin Act, the invasion of Poland, Hitler takes Paris,
Kristallnacht, the Battle of Britain, the invasion of Pearl Harbor.
3. In one concise sentence, summarize “America’s Transformation from Bystander to Belligerent.”
PERIOD 7: 1890-1945 (Unit 8) - Reading Guide (Chapter Thirty-Five)
Answer the following questions fully and completely.
Immediately after America’s entrance to the war, what decision did the US government make to prepare for war? Be sure to
address the ABC-1 Agreement, the Executive Order No.9066, and Korematsu v. US in your response.
2. Complete the chart on US mobilization for the war effort:
War Mobilization
How it supported the war effort?
War Production Board
Office of Price Administration
National War Labor Board
Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act
3. Create a graphic organizer illustrating and explaining the role and treatment of women, African Americans, American Indians,
and Mexicans play in the war effort (both domestically and internationally)? Be sure to include WAC’s, the Bracero Program,
“Rosie the Riveter”, the Negro March on Washington, the Fair Employment Practices Commission, Tuskegee Airmen, the
Congress of Racial Equality, and “Code Talkers.”
4. Create a color coded timeline of WWII activity based on the actions of the following war theatres: Europe, the Pacific, North
Africa, Russia (one color per nation). Here are the events to include (and briefly explain) on the timeline: The Bataan Death
March, the Battle of Stalingrad, Operation Torch/The Battle of El Alamein, the Battle of Midway, Invasion of Italy, Operation
Overlord/D-Day, Iwo Jima, Okinawa, the Battle of the Bulge, V-E day, the dropping of the Atomic Bombs, and V-J Day.
5. Write a formal thesis statement either supporting or opposing the dropping of the atomic bomb.
PERIOD 7: 1890-1945 - Crash Course Videos
For each period, watch the following videos. There are no questions to go with these videos, but they will be EMMENSLY
VALUABLE in helping you contextualize and compare time periods!
1. The Progressive Era: Crash Course US History #27
2. American Imperialism: Crash Course US History #28
3. Progressive Presidents: Crash Course US History #29
4. America in World War I: Crash Course US History #30
5. Women's Suffrage: Crash Course US History #31
6. The Roaring 20's: Crash Course US History #32
7. The Great Depression: Crash Course US History #33
8. The New Deal: Crash Course US History #34
9. World War II Part 1: Crash Course US History #35
10. World War II Part 2 - The Homefront: Crash Course US History #36
PERIOD 7: 1890-1945 - Theme Chart Review
Identify what is happening in each of the seven themes in this period. Descriptions should not be more than two sentences.
Recognize that certain themes will be more prominent in certain time periods than in others.
Identify - Details, events, people, places, etc.
Work, Exchange,
Politics and
America in the
Environment and
Ideas, Beliefs,
and Culture
Descriptions – The Big Picture