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Democritus - First to use the term atom
Aristotle - Defined matter as composed of hot,
cold, wet and dry
John Dalton - Modern Atomic Theory and Law
of Multiple Proportions
Antoine Lavoisier - Law of conservation of
Joseph Proust - Law of Definite Proportions
J.J. Thomson - Discovered the electron with
cathode ray experiment and proposed Plum
pudding model
Robert Millikan - Discovered the charge/mass
of the electron using Oil Drop Experiment
Ernest Rutherford - Discovered the nucleus using
gold foil experiment
James Chadwick - Discovered the neutron
Henri Becquerel - discovered radiation emitted by
Marie Curie - discovered two other elements that
emitted radiation (Polonium and Radium)
Niels Bohr - Proposed energy levels and the
Planetary model of the Atom
Louis de Broglie - Proposed the wave particle
duality of nature
Werner Heisenberg - Proposed the Uncertainty
Erwin Schrodinger – Proposed electron cloud
model (quantum mechanical model) of an atom
John Newlands – noticed pattern when elements
were arranged by atomic mass (repeated every 8th
element). He used the word periodic to describe
this pattern and named it the Law of Octaves
Lothar Meyer – made a connection between
atomic mass and properties of elements and made
periodic table
Dmitri Mendeleev– made a connection between
atomic mass and properties of elements and made
periodic table. Also predicted unknown elements.
Henry Mosely – arranged periodic table by atomic
number and gave us Periodic Law
Four parts of an experiment
Independent variable – what the scientist
changes, what is being tested.
 Dependent variable – what changes
because of the independent variable.
 Control – the comparison item, it is used to
see if the independent has an effect
(usually a sample with no independent
 Constants – everything else that is in the
experiment that we keep constant