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Transcript

Division page Please add quiz answers to notes; they were accidentally left off for a place to record. Watch all video links carefully. START NOTES SECTION 4.2 Slide of 27 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show Chapter 3 Visual Concepts Avogadro’s Number WATCH THIS VIDEO TO CONNECT BACK WITH THE M&M & MOLE MINI-LAB Click below to watch the Visual Concept. http://my.hrw.com/sh/hc6_003036809x/st Visual Concept udent/ch03/sec03/vc05/hc603_03_v05fs. htm Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 Section 2 The Quantum Model of the Atom Lesson Starter • Write down your address using the format of street name, house/apartment number, and ZIP Code. • These items describe the location of your residence. • How many students have the same ZIP Code? How many live on the same street? How many have the same house number? Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 Section 2 The Quantum Model of the Atom Lesson Starter, continued • In the same way that no two houses have the same address, no two electrons in an atom have the same set of four quantum numbers. • In this section, you will learn how to use the quantum-number code to describe the properties of electrons in atoms. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 Section 2 The Quantum Model of the Atom Objectives • Discuss Louis de Broglie’s role in the development of the quantum model of the atom. • Compare and contrast the Bohr model and the quantum model of the atom. • Explain how the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the Schrödinger wave equation led to the idea of atomic orbitals. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 Section 2 The Quantum Model of the Atom Objectives, continued • List the four quantum numbers and describe their significance. • Relate the number of sublevels corresponding to each of an atom’s main energy levels, the number of orbitals per sublevel, and the number of orbitals per main energy level. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 Section 2 The Quantum Model of the Atom Electrons as Waves • French scientist Louis de Broglie suggested that electrons be considered waves confined to the space around an atomic nucleus. • It followed that the electron waves could exist only at specific frequencies. • According to the relationship E = hv, these frequencies corresponded to specific energies—the quantized energies of Bohr’s orbits. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 Section 2 The Quantum Model of the Atom Electrons as Waves, continued • Electrons, like light waves, can be bent, or diffracted. • Diffraction refers to the bending of a wave as it passes by the edge of an object or through a small opening. • Electron beams, like waves, can interfere with each other. • Interference occurs when waves overlap. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 Visual Concepts De Broglie and the Wave-Particle Nature of Electrons Click below to watch the Visual Concept. http://my.hrw.com/sh/hc6_00303 6809x/student/ch04/sec02/vc00/h Visual Concept c604_02_v00fs.htm Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. 4.2 Physics and the Quantum Mechanical Model > Quantum Mechanics Classical mechanics adequately describes the motions of bodies much larger than atoms, while quantum mechanics describes the motions of subatomic particles and atoms as waves. Slide of 38 10 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show Chapter 4 Section 2 The Quantum Model of the Atom The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle • German physicist Werner Heisenberg proposed that any attempt to locate a specific electron with a photon knocks the electron off its course. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. 4.2 Physics and the Quantum Mechanical Model > Quantum Mechanics The Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that it is impossible to know exactly both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time. • This limitation is critical in dealing with small particles such as electrons. • This limitation does not matter for ordinarysized object such as cars or airplanes. Slide of 38 12 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show Chapter 4 Visual Concepts Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Click below to watch the Visual Concept. http://my.hrw.com/sh/hc6_0030368 Visual Concept 09x/student/ch04/sec02/vc01/hc604 _02_v01fs.htm Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. 4.2 Physics and the Quantum Mechanical Model > Quantum Mechanics The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Slide of 38 14 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show Chapter 4 Section 2 The Quantum Model of the Atom The Schrödinger Wave Equation • In 1926, Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger developed an equation that treated electrons in atoms as waves. • Together with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, the Schrödinger wave equation laid the foundation for modern quantum theory. • Quantum theory describes mathematically the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 Visual Concepts Electron Cloud Click below to watch the Visual Concept. http://my.hrw.com/sh/hc6_003036809 Visual Concept x/student/ch04/sec02/vc03/hc604_02_ v03fs.htm Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 Section 2 The Quantum Model of the Atom The Schrödinger Wave Equation, continued • Electrons do not travel around the nucleus in neat orbits, as Bohr had postulated. • Instead, they exist in certain regions called orbitals. • An orbital is a three-dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 Section 2 The Quantum Model of the Atom Atomic Orbitals and Quantum Numbers • Quantum numbers specify the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals. • The principal quantum number, symbolized by n, indicates the main energy level occupied by the electron. 1, 2, 3, etc. as n increases the electron’s energy level and its distance from the nucleus increases. • The angular momentum quantum number, symbolized by l, indicates the shape of the orbital. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. 4.2 Models of the Atom > Atomic Orbitals Different atomic orbitals are denoted by letters. The s orbitals are spherical, and p orbitals are dumbbell-shaped. Slide of 26 19 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show 4.2 Models of the Atom > Atomic Orbitals Four of the five d orbitals have the same shape but different orientations in space. f orbitals are more complex in nature as well. There are seven f-orbitals. Slide of 26 20 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show 4.2 Models of the Atom > Atomic Orbitals An atomic orbital is often thought of as a region of space in which there is a high probability of finding an electron. Each energy sublevel corresponds to an orbital of a different shape, which describes where the electron is likely to be found. Slide of 26 21 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show 4.2 Models of the Atom > Atomic Orbitals The numbers and kinds of atomic orbitals depend on the energy sublevel. The number of orbitals in each the first 4 main energy levels equals n2. 22 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide of 26 End Show 4.2 Models of the Atom > Atomic Orbitals The number of electrons allowed in each of the first four energy levels are shown here. The maximum number of electrons in each of the energy levels is equal to 2n2. Slide of 26 23 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show Chapter 4 Section 2 The Quantum Model of the Atom Atomic Orbitals and Quantum Numbers, continued • The magnetic quantum number, symbolized by m, indicates the orientation of an orbital around the nucleus & can be an integer from - l to + l where l is the angular momentum. (This is a little “L” notation) • The spin quantum number has only two possible values—(+1/2 , 1/2)—which indicate the two fundamental spin states of an electron in an orbital. • A single orbital can hold a maximum of 2 electrons which must have opposite spin states. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 Visual Concepts Quantum Numbers and Orbitals Click below to watch the Visual Concept. http://my.hrw.com/sh/hc6_003036809 Visual Concept x/student/ch04/sec02/vc04/hc604_02 _v04fs.htm Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 Section 2 The Quantum Model of the Atom Shapes of s, p, and d Orbitals Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 Section 2 The Quantum Model of the Atom Electrons Accommodated in Energy Levels and Sublevels Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 Section 2 The Quantum Model of the Atom Electrons Accommodated in Energy Levels and Sublevels Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 Section 2 The Quantum Model of the Atom Quantum Numbers of the First 30 Atomic Orbitals Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. 5.3 Section Quiz. Assess students’ understanding of the concepts in Section 5.3. Continue to: -or- Launch: Section Quiz Slide of 38 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show Online Self-Check Quiz Complete the online Quiz and record answers. Ask if you have any questions about your answers. click here for online Quiz 4.2 (10 questions) You must be in the “Play mode” for the slideshow for hyperlink to work. Slide of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show VIDEOS FOR ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTION Additional Videos for Section 4.2: The Quantum Model of the Atom •Atomic Orbitals (4:27) •Quantum Numbers (3:12) •Orbital Diagrams (4:58) Slide of 27 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall End Show