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European Environment
State and outlook – 2005
European Environment Agency
European Environment Agency, 2005. The
European environment — State and outlook 2005.
EEA, Copenhagen 2005
(http://europa.eu.int).
This is the third state and
outlook report on the European
environment produced by the
European Environment Agency
(EEA) since 1994.
From the authors: „Tackling clearly unsustainable trends in
Europe will require real integration of environmental objectives
across policy areas such as energy, transport, agriculture, industry
and spatial planning. Consumers must also be given the
information and incentives to change the way in which their
households and lifestyles impact upon their local — and global —
environments. It is not easy to bring about such shifts in behaviour
but many of the environmental improvements that we need in the
coming years can only be brought about through such changes. At
the same time, the EU must remain vigilant to ensure that the
policy measures already in place are fully implemented and
properly enforced”.
Jacqueline McGlade
According to Regulation (EEC/1210/90), the EEA is
required to ..'publish a report on the state of, trends
in and prospects for the environment every five
years, supplemented by indicator reports focusing
upon specific issues'.
The third report presents past, present and future
perspectives for the environment, providing an
integrated assessment for understanding the main
challenges in Europe's environment bearing in mind
economic and social changes in Europe and in the
world.
Document has four parts:
A: Integrated assessment;
B: Core set of indicators;
C: Country analysis;
D: Bibliography of EEA publications since
2000.
! All can be downloaded from the EEA web page
PART A | Integrated assessment (pp. 28-254)
Setting the scene
Environment and quality of life ;The changing face of Europe
Atmospheric environment
Climate change ; Air pollution and health
Aquatic environment
Freshwaters ; Marine and coastal environment
Terrestrial environment
Soil; Biodiversity
Integration
Environment and economic sectors ; Looking ahead
Part A
• gives the European environmental features and their relations
with socio-economic activities. Trends are presented in relation to
the past and future.
• presents recent European changes through changes of
landscape patterns.
• shows how the role of the environment is perceived in relation to
welfare improvements.
• assesses the potential of Europe's land area to continue
providing ecological goods and services and main policy
instruments that are influencing change.
• shows aspects of climate changes,
• air pollution and its impacts on people's health; focusing on
pollution from households, energy supply and transport
• Concentrates on future challenges and the costs of
action/inaction in the face of uncertainty.
Part A (cont.)
• Aquatic environment covers freshwater, marine and
coastal environments: main pollution sources and trends
are in focus;
• Marine and coastal ecosystems concentrate on
climatic changes and effects on coasts and oceans
• Terrestrial environment show mainly biodiversity
problems providing a comprehensive analysis of
terrestrial ecosystems and species and a global use of
natural resources shown by its ecological footprint.
• agriculture, transport, energy and households are
presented in the context of improving eco-efficiency.
PART B | Core set of indicators (pp. 255-407)
Setting the scene
Air pollution and ozone depletion
Biodiversity
Threatened and protected species; Designated areas;
Species diversity
Climate change
Greenhouse gases; Global and European
temperature;Atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations
PART B | Core set of indicators (pp. 305-407)
Terrestrial
Land take; progress in management of contaminated
sites;
Waste
Municipal waste generation; Generation and recycling
of packaging waste;
Water
Use of freshwater resources; Oxygen consuming substances in
rivers; Nutrients; Bathing water quality; Chlorophyll wastewater
treatment;
PART B | Core set of indicators (pp. 305-407)
Agriculture
Gross nutrient balance; Area under organic farming;
Energy
Energy consumption; energy intensity; Renewable
electricity
Fisheries
Marine fish stocks; Aquaculture production
Transport
Passenger transport demand; Freight transport
demand ;Use of cleaner and alternative fuels
Part B
An assessment of a set of the European indicators using
the 37 EEA/Eionet relevant to:
• air pollution and ozone depletion,
• climate change,
• biodiversity,
• waste,
Related to: terrestrial environment and water
and the main economic sectors — agriculture, transport,
energy and fisheries.
Part B
From the executive summary:
„Each indicator is presented in a standard fourpage template that includes information on policy
questions and messages, trends assessment, data
quality and methodological developments. The four
pages are summaries of more detailed indicator
profiles that are available on the EEA website”.
PART C | Country analysis
Thematic assessment
Greenhouse gas emissions
Total energy consumption
Renewable electricity
Emissions of acidifying substances
Emissions of ozone precursors
Freight transport demand
Area under organic farming
Municipal waste generation
Use of freshwater resources
PART C | Country analysis
Country perspectives (11 from Baltic Region)
Czech Republic,
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
Germany
Latvia
Lithuania
Norway
Poland
Slovak Republic
Sweden
(Belarus, Ukraine, Russian Federation lacking)
Part C
Cross country indicators are identified in the contents
Part C
Gives detailed country level analysis of progress on
environmental issues and contains details from 11 countries
representing Baltic Sea Basin
 nine indicators from the 37 in the core set were used
for comparisons
 used indicators relate to points that policy can affect
and on which policy is targeted in the economic sectors
that have most impact
 indicators have data available at the country level with
trends enabling analysis of change. They have been
earlier identified in the contents
European improvements, local choices, global impacts
Eurobarometer - over 70 % want decision-makers to give
equal weight to environmental, economic and social policies.
Europeans are prepared to take some environmental action:
- if they had better information on environmental choices that
cost little or nothing.
- if they felt confident that other citizens were doing the same.
European improvements, local choices, global
impacts
• urban wastewater cleaned-up better thus Europe's
rivers, lakes and estuaries to recover from pollution.
about 18 % of all the territory are protected natural
areas - thus and that helps maintainingd ecosystems
and preserving biological diversity.
forests are regenerating faster and slightly increase in
some regions
these benefits for people's health and for their quality of
life.
Improvements, local choices, global impacts
Challenges for the future can be found in:
 increased use of renewable energy resources (wind,
solar power); replacement of nonrenewable resources is
necessary.
 changes in the way Europe and our ways of life
(difficult!)
 shift in environmental emphasis from production to
consumption issues.
 increased awareness about environmental and health
effects
(positive impact on our daily choices shopping, living,
working travelling etc. Is expected)
European improvements, local choices, global impacts
 Household expenditure increased by a third in the
 EU-15 between 1990 and 2002.
 The estimated 'ecological footprint' of the EU-25 is about 5
'global hectares' per person (= the estimated land area required
to produce the resources and to absorb our wastes which is
bigger than Japan, half that of the US, double as Brazil or India).
 The total global use of natural resources is 20 % higher than
the rate of replacement each year.
Increasing urbanisation, land use
 Between 1990 and 2000 more than 800 000
hectares of naturally productive land were
converted into artificial surfaces of urban areas for
homes, offices, shops, factories, and roads, the
increase is equal 6 %.
The use of land and water from surrounding
areas is intensified
Climate change and its effects:
Rising sea temperatures and increased nutrients
levels cause:
- algal blooms — harmful to marine life and humans.
- changes of zooplankton cause migration of the fish
To achieve lower than 2oC temperature increase
CO2 need to be below 550 ppm greenhouse gas
emissions in developed countries should be
reduced by 60–80 % by 2050 (compared to 1990).
EU Kyoto mid-term goal for 2020 is a 15 to 30 %
reduction in greenhouse gas emissions (rather
difficult)
Energy demands:
Slow progress in replacement to renewable energy respources
(sustained investment necessary but shifting to low-carbon
energy sources, will increase energy costs for consumers.)
Health status is better, exposure to pollutants
remain
Many forms of air pollution are highly reduced (smog, acid
rain). Fine particulates, ozone remain and are highly toxic
(6.4% children deaths are caused by outdoor pollution)
New chemicals appear from food, various goods
farmaceuticals, etc., and act as mixtures causing an increase of
cancer or childhood leukaemia
Depleting our natural resources
World's fish stocks and as well Europe’s are over-fished
18 % of Europe's land area as protected areas under the
Natura 2000 network will contribute to securing the health and
diversity of its ecosystems.
The largest losses for biodiversity during the 1990s were in
heath, scrub and tundra, and wetland mires, bogs and fens.
Many forests are harvested more intensively than before.
Many species remain threatened (42 % of native mammals,
15 % of birds, 45 % of butterflies, 30 % of amphibians, 45 % of
reptiles and 52 % of freshwater fish.)
Policy-making and market
 Policy-making should better support citizens through
public information and awareness-raising measures
 Need to encourage behavioural changes amongst
Europe's consumers (transport, energy or agricultural sectors) on
less environmentally damaging activities.
 Political pressure to use more evironmentally friendly
technologies, forcing changes in consumers behaviour
 Tax reform needed towards more sustainable, through a
shift of the tax base away from taxing 'good resources'
(investment, labour), towards taxing 'bad resources' such
as pollution and inefficient use of resources
Selected graphs from a series
documented in the book
For all figures used in this presentation:
„Copyright EEA, Copenhagen, 2005”
http://www.eea.eu.int
Energy consumption per capita
Energy consumption per GDP
Organic
farming
Energy
consumption
Acidified substances per capita in
various European countries
Greenhouse gas-emissions- a distance to
Kyoto protocol (relative)
Changes in various energetic resources
in total energy used
Pb in soils
EIONET
data
Pollution in
European
rivers
Greenhouse gas
emissions
1970-2100
Ecol.
footprint
Ecoovershooting
Data from Helcom, Ospar and EEA member countries
Endangered
forest
species
Afforestation in Europe
MCPFE, 2003. State of
Europe's Forests 2003
Cod
Flounder
Herring
and their
contamination
1986-2002
Data from Helcom, Ospar and EEA
member countries