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Transcript
Beyond Habitat Selection:
Physiological Responses of
Species to Climate
Betsy Reardon
GEO 387H: Physical Climatology
Literature Review Presentation
Professor: Dr. Zong-Liang Yang
Presentation Outline
• Introduction to Ecology/Biogeography
• Climate Envelope Models vs.
Mechanistic Models
• Key Life History Features and Their
Relationship to Climate
• Conclusions
Introduction
• What is Ecology?
• What is Biogeography?
• Species Ranges and Range Limits
http://www.conifers.org/cu/ju/communis
Introduction
• What is Ecology?
• What is Biogeography?
• Species Ranges and Range Limits
• Future Predictions about Range
Climate Envelope Model
• Based on Ecological Niche Theory
– Hutchinson 1957
• Define Current Range
• Determine Correlative Environmental
Variables
• Attempt to Anticipate Future Spatial of
Environmental Variables
• Species Track Environmental Variables
Climate Envelope Model
• Based on either presence-absence data or
abundance counts
• Assume full range information with
comprehensive data
• Assume capturing all significant
environmental variables
• Attempt to not “Over-Fit” the data
http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol4/iss1/art1/figure2
http://www.bio.sdsu.edu/eb/avanderg/pitfall_locations2.jpg
Mechanistic Model
• Identify relationship between key
biological events and climate
• Predict physiological responses to
climate change
• Forecast future range boundaries
Key Life History Features
• Migration
• Sex Determination
• Phenology
• Reproduction
Migration
• Triggers classically studied as either
temperature or lighting variations
• Suggest relationship to large-scale
global climate phenomena
– Ex. North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)
– Huppop and Huppop (2003)
http://www.bird-friends.com/pics/BlackThroatedBlueWarbler
http://www.fws.gov/arrowwood/pothole.html
Sex Determination
• Human sex determination is based on
sex chromosomes
• Most reptile sex determination is based
on environmental controls
http://i1.treknature.com/
• 2ºC shifted from normal
• 4ºC beyond rebound
http://www.parkerriver.org
Phenology
• Study of the timing of biological events
– Use to study reaction of species to climate
change
– Use to anticipate shifts in ecological
relationships
Reproduction
• Commonly coupled with other life
history events
• Reproductive success is dependent on
climate
http://www.naturcymru.org.uk
http://www.marksphotos.nuttybird.net
Conclusions
• Essential links between key life history
events and climate
• Rate of evolution and climate change
• Climate Envelop vs. Mechanistic
Models