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AGA’s Programme on
Livestock in Climate
Change
December 1st, 2009
Pierre Gerber
Livestock Policy Officer, AGAL
Outline
• Livestock’s Long Shadow
•
•
• why?
• main results
• aftermath
Current programme of work on climate
• overview
• ongoing activities
Conclusions
Livestock’s Long Shadow
•
Land use
•
Climate change
•
Water
•
Biodiversity
•
•
Rangeland represents about 26% of emerged land
Feed crops use about 33% of arable land
•
•
18% of GHG emissions related to livestock food chains
C storage potential
•
Livestock sector represents 8% of all entropic water use, 90% of
which for feed production
•
•
IUCN identifies livestock as one of the threats to 1699 endangered
species (red list)
Can also have positive effects on biodiversity conservation
Technical options for mitigation are largely available but conducive
policy frameworks and institutions are missing.
The aftermath of LLS
• Raised awareness
•
•
•
•
academia, general public, policy debate
over simplification and distortion/selection of messages
focus on climate change
basic results stood the test
• Many studies relying on food chain / live cycle approach:
available results and databases but fragmented
• Expectations to move on to an action plan
Aim of current activities on climate
change
•
Provide specific policy and technology options to mitigate
Greenhouse Gas emissions of livestock production

•
identify ”low hanging fruit”
• enteric methane
• manure management
• restoration of degraded pastures in the Neotropics
Provide scientific underpinning to climate negotiations
•
•
•
improve the quantification calculations
quantify economic and trade implications associated with policy
recommendations
identify technology packages adapted to farming systems and agroecological zones
Overview of current activities
Programme on the
reduction of GHG
emissions from
animal food chains
Quantification
of emissions
Economic
modeling
Pilot project
Policy
analysis
LCA analysis
Technical recommendations
Policy recommendations
Life cycle analysis – dairy product
Range of GHG for commodities
in OECD-countries
kg CO2 eq/kg animal protein
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
Pig
Poultry
Beef
Milk
Eggs
Source: DeVries & DeBoer (2009)
kg CO2 eq/kg animal protein
Range of GHG emissions within
one production system: landless
pig production
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Standard
methodology
Best Practice
Worst practice
Best
technology
Source: Backus (2009)
Attributing emissions
Percentage of total GHG emissions
100
90
Meat
Manure
80
70
60
Traction
Savings
Insurance
50
40
Meat
30
20
10
Milk
Milk
Sub Saharan Africa
Netherlands
0
Overview of current activities
Programme on the
reduction of GHG
emissions from
animal food chains
Quantification
of emissions
Economic
modeling
Pilot project
Policy
analysis
LCA analysis
Technical recommendations
Policy recommendations
Livestock sector purchases permits
from other sectors
Emissions permit revenue (mil. USD), 2013
Cap = 100% of 2008 emissions
500
0
World
Permit Sale (+), Purchases (-), million USD
-500
-1,000
-1,500
-2,000
-2,500
-3,000
-3,500
North
America
Latin
America
Europe
Africa
Asia and
Pacific
Oceania
“High-cap” for non-Annex 1 countries
Emissions permit revenue (mil. USD), 2013
Cap = Annex 1: 84.5% of 2013 emissions
Non-Annex 1: 100% 2013 emissions
1500
Permit sales (+), purchases (-), million USD
1000
500
0
World
-500
-1000
-1500
North
America
Latin
America
Europe
Africa
Asia and
Pacific
Oceania
Overview of current activities
Programme on the
reduction of GHG
emissions from
animal food chains
Quantification
of emissions
Economic
modeling
Pilot project
Policy
analysis
LCA analysis
Technical recommendations
Policy recommendations
Overview of current activities
Programme on the
reduction of GHG
emissions from
animal food chains
Quantification
of emissions
Economic
modeling
Pilot project
Policy
analysis
LCA analysis
Technical recommendations
Policy recommendations
Conclusions
• Livestock’s Long Shadow provided an overview of
•
•
•
livestock’s impact on major global environmental issues
Since then the work of AGAL has mostly focused on climate
change
Analytical work aimed at underpinning the selection of
technologies (AGAP) and policy options (AGAL)
No strong collaboration with NGOs so far
Contact: [email protected]