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Transcript
Chapter 5
The Integumentary System
HS 260 - Anatomy, Physiology and Chemistry
Functions of Skin
• Protects from injuries
Functions of Skin
• Protects from injuries
• Acts as barrier and regulates what enters/leaves
body.
Functions of Skin
• Protects from injuries
• Acts as barrier and regulates what enters/leaves
body.
• Regulates body temperature.
Functions of Skin
• Protects from injuries
• Acts as barrier and regulates what enters/leaves
body.
• Regulates body temperature.
• Synthesizes and stores vitamins.
Functions of Skin
• Protects from injuries
• Acts as barrier and regulates what enters/leaves
body.
• Regulates body temperature.
• Synthesizes and stores vitamins.
• Sensory functions
Chapter 6
The Skeletal System
HS 260 - Anatomy, Physiology and Chemistry
Bone Formation and Growth
•
The process of bone formation
 Most of the skeleton of the fetus begins cartilage.
 Gradually the cartilage is replaced by calcified
bone matrix (endochondral ossification)
 A few flat bones form by intramembranous
ossification
 A newborn’s skeleton has many bones that have
not completely ossified.
Structure of Long Bones
Longitudinal Section of a
Long Bone
Bone Formation and Growth
• The process of bone growth
 In long bones
 Starts in the diaphysis (shaft)
 Then, the center of the (epiphysises) bone ends
• Epiphyseal plate
• Epiphyseal line
• The process of “remodeling”


Osteoblasts form new bone
Osteoclasts resorb bone
Microscopic Structure of Bone
Chapter 7
The Muscular System
HS 260 - Anatomy, Physiology and Chemistry
Effects of Exercise
• Regular, properly practiced exercise improves
muscle tone and posture
• Results in more efficient heart and lung
functioning
• Reduces fatigue
• Helps muscle tissue develop
• Helps maintain a healthy weight
Effects of Exercise
• Effects of exercise on skeletal muscles
 Prolonged inactivity causes disuse, or atrophy
 Regular exercise increases muscle size, called
hypertrophy
Effects of Exercise
• Strength training: Exercise involving
contractions of muscles against heavy resistance
 Increases number of myofilaments in each
muscle fiber
 Total mass of the muscle increases
 Does not increase the number of muscle fibers
•
Effects of Exercise
• Endurance training: Exercise that increases a
muscle’s ability to sustain moderate exercise
over long periods
 Sometimes called aerobic training
 Allows more efficient delivery of oxygen and
nutrients to a muscle via increased blood flow
 Increases the number of blood vessels in a
muscle
 Does not usually result in muscle hypertrophy
Question
• Why do breathing and heart rate remain elevated
after exercise stops?
Answer
• Stored ATP is quickly depleted, and if oxygen supplies
are not sufficient, muscle cells switch to energy
conversion that does not require oxygen. However,
this energy conversion produces lactic acid.
• The “oxygen debt” is paid when labored breathing
and an increased heart rate are required to remove
lactic acid and replace depleted energy reserves,
even after exercise has ended.
Question
• Why would a “physically fit” person return to normal
breathing and heart rate levels more quickly than an
unfit person?
Answer
• Increased efficiency of the respiratory and
circulatory systems
• An increase in the number of blood vessels in
muscles
• More efficient delivery of oxygen and glucose
to muscle fibers
• More oxygen is available = the less “oxygen
debt” there will be in the muscles.