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Epidemics & Pandemics
What is an epidemic?
 Epidemic - a widespread occurrence of an infectious
disease in a community at a particular time.
 Example of an epidemic:
Seasonal flu
 Minimal economic loss and social disruption
What is a pandemic?
 Pandemic – an occurrence of an infectious disease
affecting a large area, such as an entire country or
the world
 Examples:
Black death
Spanish Influenza
 Usually a new strain of a virus that humans have
little to no immunity to
 Causes social disruption and economic loss
Stages of a Pandemic
 WHO has set stages of a flu pandemic to help determine
what the actions should be taken
Stage 1-No animal influenza reported
Stage 2 – An animal influenza virus circulating in
domestic or wild animals is known to have caused
infections in humans
Stage 3 – Animal to human transmission in localized
cases no human to human infections
Stage 4 – Human to human transmission; community
level outbreaks
Stage 5 – Same virus causing outbreaks in two or more
Stage 6- Same virus in at least one additional country
Spanish Flu 1918-1919
 Why do you think the Spanish Flu spread so quickly?
 What physical or human factors influenced the
 Answer in your notes.