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Transcript
Week 25
Unit III:
“World War II & The Holocaust”
February 21-25, 2017
Why are we here this week?
Students will explore the Holocaust and listen to a survivor from Auschwitz
during a 9th grade team assembly.
Students will display knowledge and understanding of the Origins of WW II on
the first of three Unit III quizzes (on-line assessment will be completed via
History Alive!)
Students will examine and evaluate the military strategies considered by the
Allies during World War II.
Homework: Study for QUIZ on Ch. 16, 34, FC 135
Ch. 17 “ttt,” plus HA summary notes Ch. 36 and 35
Tuesday, February 21, 2017
2/21: What are three things you
know about the Holocaust?
I. Conversation Piece
Dictator Day “reflection” due…3+ lines
II. The Holocaust
Auschwitz: Survivors’ Stories
12-minute video
III. Review: Road to World War II
Ch. 34: Origins of WW II, Flow of History #135, Ch. 16 “World War Looms”
"Power tends to corrupt,
and absolute power corrupts absolutely.”
John Emerich Edward Dalberg Acton, first Baron Acton (1834–1902). The historian and moralist,
who was otherwise known simply as Lord Acton, expressed this opinion in a letter to Bishop Mandell
Creighton in 1887.
Lord Acton
“Great men are almost always bad men."
Name:
What is your interpretation of this political cartoon?
Chapter 16
World War Looms
1. What led to the rise of dictators?
Frustrations and weakened economies caused by the
Treaty of Versailles contributed to the rise of
dictators (new democratic governments in many
countries were weak).
USSR- new communist state; Germany gets blamed
for WW I (and lost territory; strong nationalism;
democracies were ineffective at solving problems
(dictators get things done)
Chapter 16
World War Looms
2. How did Germany begin World War II?
Germany (under Hitler’s leadership) began to
seize the land of neighboring countries in 1938
(Austria & Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia).
World War II began when Germany invaded
Poland September 1, 1939.
Chapter 16
World War Looms
3. How did the Nazis treat their enemies?
The Nazis carried out an organized murder of
their enemies, which resulted in the death of
roughly 6 million Jews and 5 million others
(Gypsies, Freemasons, Jehovah’s witnesses,
homosexuals, mentally or physically ill,
communists, Catholics…ALL who dissented).
Chapter 16
World War Looms
4. How did America enter World War II?
America entered World War II after years of
neutrality that clearly favored Great Britain—see
Lend-Lease Act (p. 552). The event that plunged
America into the war was the Japanese attack on
the Pearl Harbor naval base in Hawaii (December
7, 1941).
-FDR asked Congress to declare war the next day
Alive! Ch. 34: Origins of World War II (p. 447)
•
By the 1930s, extreme nationalists had gained power in Italy, Germany, and Japan, which
became known as the Axis powers. By seeking to expand through military conquest, these
countries began World War II. In 1941, the United States entered the war as one of the
Allied powers.
Totalitarianism
•
In 1924, Joseph Stalin became the dictator of the communist Soviet Union. Nazi dictator Adolf
Hitler gained power by promising to restore German strength. He built up the German military
and began a campaign of expansion. Similar actions took place in Italy under dictator Benito
Mussolini and in Japan under Japanese militarists.
Munich Pact
•
Great Britain and France tried to appease Hitler. In the M?? P???, they agreed to give him part
of Czechoslovakia in return for peace. But Hitler continued with territorial
expansion. Germany’s invasion of Poland in 1939 triggered World War II.
Neutrality Acts
•
A series of n??? a??? in the 1930s kept the United States from being drawn into European
conflicts, including the Spanish Civil War. As World War II began, however, Franklin Roosevelt
and Congress revised the acts to allow arms trading with the Allies.
Lend-Lease Act
•
Germany quickly occupied most of Europe and threatened to invade Great Britain. As German
bombers ravaged British cities, the United States decided to help Britain by passing the LendLease Act. This law allowed the United States to lend arms to Britain and, later, to the Soviet
Union.
Attack on Pearl Harbor
•
On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor. This attack caused
the United States to declare war on Japan and enter World War II.
Alive! Ch. 34: Origins of World War II (p. 447)
•
By the 1930s, extreme nationalists had gained power in Italy, Germany, and Japan, which
became known as the Axis powers. By seeking to expand through military conquest, these
countries began World War II. In 1941, the United States entered the war as one of the
Allied powers.
Totalitarianism
•
In 1924, Joseph Stalin became the dictator of the communist Soviet Union. Nazi dictator Adolf
Hitler gained power by promising to restore German strength. He built up the German military
and began a campaign of expansion. Similar actions took place in Italy under dictator Benito
Mussolini and in Japan under Japanese militarists.
Munich Pact
•
Great Britain and France tried to appease Hitler. In the Munich Pact, they agreed to give him
part of Czechoslovakia in return for peace. But Hitler continued with territorial
expansion. Germany’s invasion of Poland in 1939 triggered World War II.
Neutrality Acts
•
A series of neutrality acts in the 1930s kept the United States from being drawn into European
conflicts, including the Spanish Civil War. As World War II began, however, Franklin Roosevelt
and Congress revised the acts to allow arms trading with the Allies.
Lend-Lease Act
•
Germany quickly occupied most of Europe and threatened to invade Great Britain. As German
bombers ravaged British cities, the United States decided to help Britain by passing the LendLease Act. This law allowed the United States to lend arms to Britain and, later, to the Soviet
Union.
Attack on Pearl Harbor
•
On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor. This attack caused
the United States to declare war on Japan and enter World War II.
Holocaust?
The term "Holocaust," originally from the Greek word
"holokauston" which means "sacrifice by fire," refers
to the Nazi's persecution and planned slaughter of the
Jewish people.
The Hebrew word "Shoah," which means "devastation,
ruin, or waste," is also used for this genocide.
2/3 of the Jews living in Europe at the time were killed.
Holocaust?
The term "Holocaust," originally from the Greek word
"holokauston" which means "sacrifice by fire," refers to the Nazi's
persecution and planned slaughter of the Jewish people.
The Hebrew word "Shoah," which means "devastation, ruin, or
waste," is also used for this genocide.
WARNING:
• You will be exposed to graphic images, video footage, and
information that may make you uncomfortable.
• If you need to close your eyes, put your head down, or
leave the room temporarily, please do so with minimal
disruption.
• THANK YOU in advance for your respectful attention &
participation.
• http://images.search.yahoo.com/search/images;_ylt=A0oG
7oq.xD9R2WgAtm8PxQt.?p=Holocaust+photos&fr=&fr2=pi
v-web
View of barracks and the ammunition factory in one
of the first photos of Dachau concentration camp.
Dachau, Germany, March or April 1933.
View of the Dachau concentration camp,
after liberation. Germany, April 29, 1945.
View of
barracks after
the liberation
of Kaufering, a
network of
subsidiary
camps of the
Dachau
concentration
camp.
LandsbergKaufering,
Germany,
April 29,
1945.
Prisoners at forced labor. Photo taken during an
SS inspection. Dachau concentration camp,
Germany, June 28, 1938.
Medical experiment
performed at the
Dachau
concentration camp
to determine
altitudes at which
German pilots could
survive. Germany,
1942.
A Romani (Gypsy) victim of Nazi medical
experiments to make seawater potable. Dachau
concentration camp, Germany, 1944.
American soldiers view bodies of victims of
Kaufering, a network of subsidiary camps of the
Dachau concentration camp. LandsbergKaufering, Germany, April 30, 1945.
Human remains found in the Dachau
concentration camp crematorium after
liberation. Germany, April 1945.
U.S. soldiers discovered these boxcars loaded with dead prisoners
outside the Dachau camp. Here, they force German boys--believed
to be members of the Hitler Youth (HJ)--to confront the atrocity.
Dachau, Germany, April 30, 1945.
Camp survivors in barracks at liberation.
Dachau, Germany, April 29-May 1, 1945
Camp survivors after liberation.
Dachau, Germany, after April 29, 1945.
Survivors of the Ampfing
subcamp of the Dachau
concentration camp soon
after liberation by U.S.
troops. Ampfing,
Germany, May 4, 1945.
“A thousand years will pass and the
guilt of Germany will not be erased."
- Hans Frank, Governor General of
Poland before he was hanged at
Nuremberg
The holocaust was a watershed event in human history. In the aftermath of World
War II, the world—from individual nations to the United Nations; from religious
leaders to professionals in fields as diverse as law, medicine, and science; from
presidents and prime ministers to private citizens—confronted its legacy.
In light of the moral failures that allowed the Holocaust to happen:
• Nations pledged to prevent and punish the crime of “genocide.”
• Criminal trials established that government officials who commit crimes
against humanity could be held accountable by international tribunals.
• International protection of human rights expanded dramatically.
• The idea of “informed consent” influenced ethical approaches to medical
experimentation on human beings.
• Protections for refugees were broadened.
• The idea of a Jewish homeland gained urgency.
• The movement towards reconciliation between Christians & Jews advanced.
Soviet Union (USSR)
Joseph Stalin
ITALY
Benito Mussolini
Germany
Adolf Hitler
JAPAN
Hideki Tojo
Soviet Union
Joseph Stalin, “the man of steel”
Totalitarianism:
-government controls all aspects of society
-single-party political system
-state planning of the economy
-state-owned collective farms
-forced private farmers to work on cooperative farms
-placed people who resisted in labor camps
-secret police rounded up and killed
opponents
Italy
Benito Mussolini, “Il Duce”
(the Chief or Leader)
Fascism:
-extreme nationalism; state comes first; individual liberty
is secondary
-strongly opposes communism and democracy
-favors military values, use of violence, and strong leader
-Blackshirt squads terrorized rival political groups
-outlawed labor unions and opposing political parties
-censored the press
Germany
Adolf Hitler, “der Führer”
(the leader)
Nazism:
-a form of fascism
-extreme racism, particularly aimed at Jews
-territorial expansion to create Lebensraum, or “living space”
-blamed Jews for Germany’s problems
-sent Jews and other “undesirables” to concentration camps
-centralized the government
Japan
Hideki Tojo, “the razor”
Militarism:
-military has increased power
-military plays a strong role in government
-called for aggressive military action abroad
-political assassinations
-military took control of civilian government
Americans, p. 530
Americans, p. 530
ACTION = aggressive?
REACTION = weak or REACTION = strong
History Alive! Sec. 3 to 5 p. 439-447; Americans, p. 528-541; 550-557
ACTION
1935-1936 Germany remilitarizes
Hitler announced the formation of a
German air force and compulsory
military service. In 1936, he sent
troops into the Rhineland, a German
region on the border with France.
These actions all challenged the
Treaty of Versailles.
REACTION
The League of Nations
lodged a formal
protest against these
actions but refused to
consider sanctions
against Germany.
ACTION = aggressive?
REACTION = weak or REACTION = strong
History Alive! Sec. 3 to 5 p. 439-447; Americans, p. 528-541; 550-557
ACTION
1935 Italy invades Ethiopia
The Italian army, under
Mussolini, invaded Ethiopia.
The Ethiopian forces could not
stop the invasion, and Italy
annexed the country in 1936.
Hitler and Mussolini soon
formed a treaty of friendship
known as the Rome–Berlin
axis
.
REACTION
Ethiopia appealed to the
League of Nations for
help. The League voted to
impose economic
sanctions against Italy,
including an oil embargo.
The United States was
asked to join the oil
embargo against Italy, but
Roosevelt refused to do
so.
ACTION = aggressive?
REACTION = weak or REACTION = strong
History Alive! Sec. 3 to 5 p. 439-447; Americans, p. 528-541; 550-557
ACTION
1936–1939 Germany and Italy aid
nationalists in Spanish Civil War
Italy and Germany backed a
military rebellion in Spain led by
General Francisco Franco. They
provided the Nationalists with
supplies, weapons, and troops.
The Nationalists eventually
overthrew Spain’s democratic
republic and set up a rightwing
dictatorship.
REACTION
Although some volunteers,
including 3,000 Americans,
fought against the
Nationalists, only the Soviet
Union officially aided the
Republicans in the Civil War.
The U.S. Congress passed
neutrality acts in 1936 and
1937, which kept the
United States out of the
conflict.
ACTION = aggressive?
REACTION = weak or REACTION = strong
History Alive! Sec. 3 to 5 p. 439-447; Americans, p. 528-541; 550-557
ACTION
1937 Japanese troops massacre
civilians in Nanjing
The Japanese army captured the
city of Nanjing. Japanese
soldiers went on a six-week
rampage, killing approximately
300,000 Chinese civilians and
raping about 20,000 Chinese
women.
REACTION
Roosevelt made a speech
calling for a quarantine
against aggressor nations
like Japan. However, the
speech had little effect,
as Japan invaded French
Indochina, Formosa,
Korea, large areas of
China, and several small
Pacific islands.
ACTION = aggressive?
REACTION = weak or REACTION = strong
History Alive! Sec. 3 to 5 p. 439-447; Americans, p. 528-541; 550-557
ACTION
1938 German Anschluss
(union) with Austria
Hitler pressured the Austrian
government to join with
Germany. In March, Hitler’s
army crossed the border
without opposition. Hitler
declared a political union, or
Anschluss, between the two
countries.
REACTION
Britain and France were
passive spectators as
Germany expanded into
Austria.
ACTION = aggressive?
REACTION = weak or REACTION = strong
History Alive! Sec. 3 to 5 p. 439-447; Americans, p. 528-541; 550-557
ACTION
1939 Germany invades
Czechoslovakia
In the Munich Pact, Hitler
acquired the Czech region of
the Sudetenland and promised
it would be his “last territorial
demand.” However, in March
1939, he broke the pact and
invaded the rest of
Czechoslovakia.
REACTION
Britain and France were
angered over Hitler’s
breaking of the Munich
Pact and declared that
any further attacks by
Germany on small states
would trigger war.
ACTION = aggressive?
REACTION = weak or REACTION = strong
History Alive! Sec. 3 to 5 p. 439-447; Americans, p. 528-541; 550-557
ACTION
1939 Germany attacks Poland
Germany signed a
nonaggression pact with the
USSR, which freed German
forces to invade Poland.
Germany used blitzkrieg tactics
to attack so quickly that Polish
forces were not able to
mobilize. Soviet forces also
invaded from the east, and
Poland quickly fell.
REACTION
France and Britain
followed through with
their original
announcement and
declared war on
Germany. However, they
were not able to do
anything to stop the
invasion and the takeover
of Poland.
ACTION = aggressive?
REACTION = weak or REACTION = strong
History Alive! Sec. 3 to 5 p. 439-447; Americans, p. 528-541; 550-557
ACTION
1940 Germany invades Low
Countries and France
Hitler moved troops to
Germany’s western borders. He
attacked and captured the Low
Countries and invaded France,
trapping French and British
troops along the coast. Italy
declared war on Britain and
France.
REACTION
Britain sent every boat
possible to evacuate the
trapped British and French
(Allied) forces. France
surrendered to Germany.
Germany occupied most
of France. Southeast
France was controlled by a
puppet government.
ACTION = aggressive?
REACTION = weak or REACTION = strong
History Alive! Sec. 3 to 5 p. 439-447; Americans, p. 528-541; 550-557
ACTION
1940 Germany attacks Britain
(Battle of Britain)
German planes flew raids
against British ports, airfields,
and industry. Later, the
bombing raid targets were
shifted to large cities.
REACTION
British fighter pilots
successfully shot down more
than 600 German aircraft
during the Battle of
Britain. British citizens
withstood the bombing
raids. The raids diminished as
Germany was unable
to replace the lost aircraft.
The United States began
sending aid to Britain under
the Lend-Lease Act.
ACTION = aggressive?
REACTION = weak or REACTION = strong
History Alive! Sec. 3 to 5 p. 439-447; Americans, p. 528-541; 550-557
ACTION
1941 Japan attacks Pearl
Harbor
Three hundred Japanese
bombers and fighter planes
attacked the U.S. military base
at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. They
crippled the U.S. Pacific Fleet,
sinking or damaging 18 ships
and destroying or damaging
300 aircraft.
REACTION
The next day, President
Roosevelt asked Congress
to declare war on Japan.
Could World War II have been prevented? Why or why not?
Flowchart 135: The Road to World War II
CLICK and open the
“essay” explaining
the flow chart (to the
left)
Flowchart 135: The Road to World War II
By far, the most destructive aftershock of World War I was
World War II, coming a mere 20 years after the Treaty of
Versailles. While the rise of the Nazis in Germany in the
1930's generally took center stage, events elsewhere, some
of them as far away as East Asia, also contributed to the
outbreak of war. Three main factors, all resulting from World
War I, would lead to war: the Treaty of Versailles, the Great
Depression, and the Russian Revolution.
1) Identify and explain the three main causes of
the 2nd World War, as explained in the flowchart &
readings.
• Failed Treaty of Versailles
• Great Depression
• Russian Revolution
2) Evaluate Paragraph 4, last sentence:
"Just as the lesson of 1914 was that too much aggression
can lead to war, the lesson of 1939 would be that war can just as
easily result from appeasement and giving in to aggression."
Do you agree or disagree?
Support you evaluation with examples & details!
Weak response by the League of Nations to Japanese
aggression in Manchuria (China) encouraged dictators like
Hitler (Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland) and Mussolini
(Ethiopia) to display power and expand territory. Democratic
nations like Great Britain, France, and the US did NOT act
decisively stop aggression…appeasement failed!
3) List & explain specific steps in the "cycle of aggression”
and the road to war in the 1930s.
Explain how Hitler and Nazi Germany, Mussolini and fascist
Italy, and how Stalin and the communists in USSR operated in
ways that led to World War II.
“The Depression and the Far East (1931-1941):
*How did Japan’s actions affect the thinking & decisions of
Hitler, Mussolini, & Stalin?
The cycle of aggression and the road to war in the 1930's
As a result, the weakening of the old alliance triggered a vicious cycle of encouraging Fascist aggression
which the Western democracies failed to react to, thus causing more aggression, and so on. This
pattern was sadly played out several times in the 1930's before the West finally took its stand.
It started in 1935 when Hitler announced that Germany was going to rearm itself in defiance of the Treaty of
Versailles. (Actually he had been secretly expanding German forces since 1933.) We have already seen how
Hitler announced Germany's rearmament in 1935. Since he justified this with the principle of national selfdetermination, Britain and France did nothing to stop him. This merely encouraged more aggressive
actions. Consequently, in 1935, Mussolini sent Italian forces into Ethiopia, using only the weakest of
excuses to cover this blatant act of aggression. When the League of Nations threatened economic
sanctions against Italy, Mussolini said a boycott on oil (which would have crippled his war machine)
would mean war with the League's members. The League, without any real force to back it up, fell for
this bluff. Britain wanted to stand up to Mussolini. However, France, still angry about Britain's naval pact with
Germany and hoping to stay on good terms with Italy as a counterweight to growing German influence in
Austria, refused to support Britain. As a result, Ethiopia fell as the world just stood by and watched.
Therefore, in 1936 Hitler defied the Treaty of Versailles again by moving German forces back into the
Rhineland, the demilitarized part of Germany. This especially agitated France, who wanted British backing but
received none. Since German rearmament was just starting, the German generals leading the troops into the
Rhineland were under secret orders to turn back if they met any French resistance. They met no such
resistance. Once again, Hitler got his way.
The aggression continued when the dictators, including Stalin got the opportunity to intervene in the
Spanish Civil War. In 1931, unrest had led to the overthrow of the corrupt monarchy still ruling Spain. At first, a
fairly liberal and democratic government took power. But, without a strong middle class and economy, riots and
turmoil resurfaced. In 1936, the Fascist Phalangists, led by General Franco, seized power and started the
Spanish Civil War.
Any civil war is a terrible thing, but Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union chose to intervene and make the war in
Spain much worse. Hitler and Mussolini backed the Fascists, known as the Nationalists. Stalin threw his
support behind the Republicans, also known as Loyalists, who had many socialists and communists in their
ranks. The result was a disaster for Spain, as terrorists from both sides murdered civilians and leaders from the
The cycle of aggression and the road to war in the 1930's
The most famous of these atrocities, immortalized by the Spanish painter, Picasso, was the bombing of the
Spanish town of Guernica, where over one-third of its population of 7000 were killed or maimed just because
they were in the way. While that was a mere fraction of the millions that would die from aerial raids in the
Second World War, it shocked the world since it was documented on film and also because it symbolized a
sinister new turn in modern warfare. In the end, the Fascists won again as the Western democracies just
watched from the sidelines. The question was: how much further could Fascist aggression go
unchallenged? Hitler seemed determined to find out.
Hitler, further encouraged in his contempt for the Western democracies, next moved on to an even
bolder objective: the Anschluss (unification) of Austria with Germany. Hitler, himself being of Austrian
birth, claimed the Austrians were Germans whose drive to achieve national self-determination was being
stifled by being kept separate from the rest of Germany. Whether right or wrong, this logic helped paralyze
France and Britain into inaction once again. Therefore, Austria became part of Germany in 1938 whether
the Austrians liked it or not.
The next target of Nazi aggression was the Sudetenland, a part of Czechoslovakia with a large German
population along with much of the country's industry and defensive fortifications. Raising the cry of national selfdetermination once again, Hitler threatened war with anyone who got in his way. A conference between Britain,
France, Italy, and Germany met at Munich where the Fascist dictators bullied and persuaded France and
Britain to agree to the Nazi takeover of the Sudetenland. Convinced, or at least wanting to believe, that this
was all Hitler wanted and that he also wanted peace, they gave in to him once more, without even consulting
their Czech allies. They figured this was all Hitler wanted.
In March 1939, Hitler swallowed up the rest of Czechoslovakia without French or British resistance. This had
two effects. For one thing, France and Britain were now finally convinced that Hitler would not stop on his
own and were determined to stand up to him the next move he made. Unfortunately, at the same time, Stalin
was convinced that France and Britain would do nothing to stop any further Nazi aggression in Eastern
Europe. Therefore, he signed a pact with Hitler (August, 1939) that would carve up Poland between them.
On September 1, 1939, believing Britain and France would do nothing to stop him, Hitler invaded
Poland. Two days later, France and Britain declared war on Germany. A mere twenty years after the end of the
First World War, the Second World War had begun.
The Depression and the Far East (1931-41)
•
•
•
•
The Depression also had unsettling effects outside of Germany. Among other things, it seriously hurt
Japan, whose economy depended heavily upon trade to pay for resources and food for its burgeoning
population. As tariffs went up and the Depression deepened, Japan grew desperate for resources. This
desperation led to a military takeover of the government, somewhat reminiscent of the Fascist dictators in
Europe. In 1931, the Japanese seized Manchuria from China on the flimsy pretext of setting up the
"independent" state of Manchukuo under Japanese "protection." China protested to the League of
Nations, but the League had no power of its own to act against aggression, especially if that
aggression were half a planet away. Therefore, Japan kept Manchuria and a foothold in China.
Even before this, China was already deeply mired in its own problems. European and Japanese
aggression in the late 1800's had helped lead to turmoil in Chinese society and government. In 1912, a
revolution replaced the last Chinese emperor with a republic under the western educated Sun Yat Sen.
However, China's experiment in democracy floundered, and, after Sun Yat Sen's death, Chinese politics
disintegrated into a three-way struggle for power between the Nationalist government's leader, Chiang Kaishek, various independent warlords in the countryside, and the Communists led by Mao Zedong.
The Japanese seizure of Manchuria presented the Chinese government with a dilemma: fight Japan right
away or crush the Communists and warlords first and then face the Japanese with a united front. Chiang
Kai Shek, being strongly anti-Communist, decided to unify China first. For several years he waged
intensive warfare against the Communists whom he badly damaged, but failed to destroy. However,
Chiang's generals, anxious to turn against Japan, forced him to ally with Mao against the common
enemy. Japan, fearing a united China, told the Nationalists to join it against the Communists or it would
take "all the steps necessary to assure peace." In July 1937, it "assured" that peace by invading China.
The Chinese army was no match for the more mechanized Japanese forces, which relentlessly and brutally
swept across the eastern seaboard of China. Cities were bombed and strafed mercilessly, while their
populations were massacred with uncontrolled ferocity. Reeling from these losses, the Chinese switched to
a strategy of trading space for time by retreating into the vast interior of China. This drew the advancing
Japanese forces further and further inland and stretched their lines to the limit. The war now settled down
to a costly stalemate that burnt, bled, and bent China, but could not break it.
The Depression and the Far East (1931-41)
•
•
•
As a result, the Japanese decided to look elsewhere for easier conquests. In 1939, they briefly
turned north against the Soviet Union. However, defeat at the hands of Soviet forces in a short but
sharply fought conflict plus a surprise pact by Japan's ally, Hitler, with Stalin to carve up Poland,
convinced Japan to go elsewhere. Therefore, it turned to easier and more lucrative conquests in
South East Asia. This involved attacking the colonies of France, Britain, and Holland, all of who
were too preoccupied with the war then raging in Europe to effectively stop Japan.
This also brought Japan face to face with the United States. When the United States threatened
economic sanctions against the Japanese if they did not pull back, Japan launched a surprise
attack on the American naval base at Pearl Harbor in the Hawaiian Islands (12/7/1941). From
the American perspective, this was the beginning of the Second World War in the Pacific, although
the Chinese and others saw it as starting in 1937 with the Japanese invasion of China. Either
way, the war in Asia was on.
Ironically, Japan's decision to turn south rather than north may have saved the allied cause in World
War II. If Hitler had kept his Japanese allies informed on his intentions to attack Russia in 1941,
they could have tied down enough Soviet forces in the Far East to deny Stalin vital reinforcements
that would be a significant factor in the ultimate Russian victory against Germany. And, of course, a
German victory against Russia would have seriously altered the course of World War II and
subsequent history.
Did you READ this last paragraph? “TALK” about a major “WHAT IF” in history!!!
Homework: Begin map annotations as you READ Ch. 36: Section 2
https://mix.office.com/watch/8ihpg7pw232c?autoplay=1
2/22: Describe a “takeaway lesson”
from David Tuck in “action-reaction”
terms.
Wednesday, February 22, 2017
I. Ch. 17 “ttt” & HA Ch. 35 & 36…30 pts
Collect Unit III packet…name?
II. Was WW II preventable?
Index card “debates”
III. Road to WW II QUIZ
30 questions…History Alive! On-line
LAB 341
The Americans, Chapter 17 (p. 560-599)
The United States in World War II
1. How did the United States provide the people and weapons to fight the war?
With the draft (~10 mill.) and volunteers (~5 mill.), the United States raised
15 million soldiers to fight in the war. The government also organized a labor
force of 18 million (1/3 were women) and controlled consumer goods with
the Office of Price Administration. The Office of Scientific Research and
Development (OSRD) recruited scientists to develop new weapons,
medicine, technology, including the atomic bomb.
Out of the Frying Pan
into the Firing Line
2. How did the Allies defeat Germany and Italy?
The United States and Great Britain used convoys and
new technology to win the Battle of the Atlantic. The
Soviet victory at Stalingrad was followed by other
advances. The Americans and British ousted the
Germans from North Africa and invaded Italy and
France. Germany surrendered in 1945.
See Ch. 36,
War in Europe Map
(Sec. 3)
3. How did the Allies defeat Japan?
To defeat Japan, the U.S. adopted a strategy of
taking smaller islands (leapfrogging or island
hopping) and then bombing supply lines. Naval
victories helped too. Finally, the U.S. dropped two
atomic bombs on Japan to compel surrender.
See Ch. 36, War in Pacific
MAPS
(Sec. 4 & 5)
Oppenheimer reflects on
atomic weapons...
4. What social and economic changes arose from the war?
During World War II, farmers’ economic position improved, as did women’s. The
war required personal adjustments, as many people married and many divorced.
Soldiers returning home had to readjust to civilian life, aided by the GI Bill of
Rights. African and Mexican Americans saw increased opportunities but suffered
some violence. Japanese Americans (Nisei) suffered greatly when they were
uprooted and sent to internment camps, losing all their possessions. p. 594-595
Alive! Ch. 36: Fighting World War II, p. 477
World War II lasted from 1939 to 1945. The United States played a major role in both main fronts
of the war—Europe and the Pacific. To retake Europe, the Allies invaded North Africa, Italy, and
France, and then moved on to Germany. To retake the Pacific, they fought island by island, until
they closed in on Japan.
Allies versus Axis powers
The Allies’ strategy of “Europe First” set the United States, Britain, and the USSR against the Axis
countries of Germany and Italy. In the Pacific, the United States and China battled Japan.
Battle of Stalingrad
Hitler’s effort to conquer the USSR ended at Stalingrad, where the Red Army forced the Nazis to
retreat. The Soviets then pushed westward to Germany.
D-Day
The Allies invaded France on June 6, 1944. Then they swept into Germany and took Berlin. Hitler
committed suicide, and Germany surrendered.
Holocaust
Moving through Poland and Germany, Allied forces liberated Jews and others from Nazi
concentration camps and began to uncover the horrors of the Holocaust.
Battle of Midway
The United States stopped Japanese expansion in the Pacific at the Battle of Midway. It then went
on the offensive, using tactics like leapfrogging to overcome Japanese resistance.
Battle of Okinawa
After the Battle of Okinawa, the Allies were poised for an invasion of Japan. Given the losses at
Okinawa, however, they knew it would be a long and costly struggle.
Manhattan Project
Scientists with the Manhattan Project developed an atomic bomb and tested it in July 1945. A
month later, the United States dropped two bombs on Japanese cities, forcing Japan’s surrender and
bringing an end to World War II.
Alive! Ch. 35: The Impact of WW II on Americans
• World War II had a great impact on Americans. Some aided the war effort by joining
the armed forces. Others produced military equipment and supplies. Many tended
victory gardens, recycled goods, and used ration coupons. Minority groups struggled
for equal treatment.
• Opportunities to serve For many young Americans, World War II provided an
opportunity to fight for their country and its ideals. Members of minority groups also
saw the war as an opportunity to show that they deserved the respect of white
Americans.
• New job opportunities Millions of workers left their jobs to join the military. The
resulting labor shortage opened the doors of industry to many who had once been shut
out. Women, African Americans, and Mexican Americans all found jobs in war-related
industries.
• Broader worldviews The war sent soldiers far from home and many to foreign
lands. They came back with a broader view of the world and a new perspective on what
it meant to be an American. Many civilians moved to industrial centers, where they lived
and worked with different groups of people.
• Hardships of war Most Americans knew little about the real hardships of war. GIs,
however, faced those hardships every day as they risked their lives in battle.
• Continued prejudice Racial and ethnic prejudice continued to plague American
society. African Americans and Mexican Americans faced harassment at home and in the
service. Japanese Americans lost their civil rights because of their ancestry. American
Jews struggled against anti-Semitism that limited efforts to save European Jews from
Nazi extermination.
• Hardships at home Women often worked “double shifts” at a paying job and domestic
jobs at home. All Americans learned to live with rationing and price controls.
Alive! Ch. 36: Fighting World War II
• World War II lasted from 1939 to 1945. The United States played a major role in both
main fronts of the war—Europe and the Pacific. To retake Europe, the Allies invaded
North Africa, Italy, and France, and then moved on to Germany. To retake the Pacific,
they fought island by island, until they closed in on Japan.
• Allies versus Axis powers The Allies’ strategy of “Europe First” set the United States,
Britain, and the USSR against the Axis countries of Germany and Italy. In the Pacific, the
United States and China battled Japan.
• Battle of Stalingrad Hitler’s effort to conquer the USSR ended at Stalingrad, where the
Red Army forced the Nazis to retreat. The Soviets then pushed westward to Germany.
• D-Day The Allies invaded France on June 6, 1944. Then they swept into Germany and
took Berlin. Hitler committed suicide, and Germany surrendered.
• Holocaust Moving through Poland and Germany, Allied forces liberated Jews and others
from Nazi concentration camps and began to uncover the horrors of the Holocaust.
• Battle of Midway The United States stopped Japanese expansion in the Pacific at the
Battle of Midway. It then went on the offensive, using tactics like leapfrogging to
overcome Japanese resistance.
• Battle of Okinawa After the Battle of Okinawa, the Allies were poised for an invasion of
Japan. Given the losses at Okinawa, however, they knew it would be a long and costly
struggle.
• Manhattan Project Scientists with the Manhattan Project developed an atomic bomb
and tested it in July 1945. A month later, the United States dropped two bombs on
Japanese cities, forcing Japan’s surrender and bringing an end to World War II.
If you got the “scoop” on two “actions” or
events in the mid-to-late 1930s, what would
your editorial say?
(yes or no?)
If you snapped the “shots” of two
“actions” or events in this time period,
what would they “show” about the
likelihood of war? (yes or no?)
WRITE a thought-filled response to your opponent’s CLAIM
Was World War II preventable?
PRINT your name (signature?) ON THE BACK!!!
“Debate” who has the BEST YES and NO arguments/claims!
Select two specific “actions” and WRITE a catchy title to your
CLAIM, or thesis, in response to this QUESTION:
Was World War II preventable?
“SHOW” that war is coming OR that it can be stopped!
Complete index card = 15 pts!
Pairs of students will SILENTLY read
& respond in WRITING to an
opposing argument/claim
Was World War II
preventable?
Who has the “best” title?
Which action(s) from history are
MORE convincing: yours or your
“opponent?”
(Ch. 16, 34, FC 135, videos)
SPAR discuss & “jab” at your
claims & reasoning!
PREPARE to SHARE with class!
SNL with Jerry Seinfeld (Season 17, 1992)
http://www.nbc.com/saturday-nightlive/video/world-war-ii-101/n10251
Homework: Annotate map(s) as you READ Ch. 36, Section 3+
2/23: REACTION to…
“Everything can be taken from a man but one thing; the last
of the human freedoms-to choose one's attitude in any
given set of circumstances, to choose one's own way.”
- Viktor Frankl
Thursday-Friday, February 23-24, 2017
I. Holocaust Exploration
Debrief from assembly, explore resources…Q & A
II. Fighting World War II
Read Ch. 34 and annotate maps
https://archive.org/details/EducationForDeathTheMakingOfTheNazi
“Never Again”
Disturbed
(David Draiman)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lfPgE7hApgw
February 2, 2012
As frontman for the multi-platinum hard-rock band Disturbed, David
Draiman writes songs that are often personal and political. As a kid, he
was drawn into occasional fistfights over anti-Jewish remarks. As an
adult, he addresses Holocaust denial and antisemitism in his song
"Never Again."
http://www.ushmm.org/confront-antisemitism/antisemitism-podcast/david-draiman
Supporters of the Golden Dawn
far-right party hold an antigovernment demonstration in the
center of Thessaloniki, Greece,
June 2014.
Giannis Papanikos/NurPhoto/Sipa
USA/AP
"If you judge people,
you have no time to love
them."
- Mother Teresa
“A thousand years will pass and the
guilt of Germany will not be erased."
- Hans Frank, Governor General of
Poland before he was hanged at
Nuremberg
The holocaust was a watershed event in human history. In the aftermath of World
War II, the world—from individual nations to the United Nations; from religious
leaders to professionals in fields as diverse as law, medicine, and science; from
presidents and prime ministers to private citizens—confronted its legacy.
In light of the moral failures that allowed the Holocaust to happen:
• Nations pledged to prevent and punish the crime of “genocide.”
• Criminal trials established that government officials who commit crimes
against humanity could be held accountable by international tribunals.
• International protection of human rights expanded dramatically.
• The idea of “informed consent” influenced ethical approaches to medical
experimentation on human beings.
• Protections for refugees were broadened.
• The idea of a Jewish homeland gained urgency.
• The movement towards reconciliation between Christians & Jews advanced.
DACHAU article
http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005214
Major Nazi camps in Europe, January 1944
Throughout German-occupied Europe, the Germans arrested those
who resisted their domination and those they judged to be racially
inferior or politically unacceptable. People arrested for resisting
German rule were mostly sent to forced-labor or concentration camps.
The Germans deported Jews from all over occupied Europe to
extermination camps in Poland, where they were systematically killed,
and also to concentration camps, where they were used for forced
labor. Transit camps such as Westerbork, Gurs, Mechelen, and Drancy
in western Europe and concentration camps like Bolzano and Fossoli di
Carpi in Italy were used as collection centers for Jews, who were then
deported by rail to the extermination camps. According to SS reports,
there were more than 700,000 prisoners registered in the
concentration camps in January 1945.
• The Dachau concentration camp, northwest of Munich,
Germany, was the first regular concentration camp the Nazis
established in 1933. About twelve years later, on April 29,
1945, US armed forces liberated the camp. There were about
30,000 starving prisoners in the camp at that time. The film
seen here was edited from original footage shot by Allied
cameramen as liberating troops entered Dachau. It was
discovered in the archives of the Imperial War Museum in
1984 and was never completed.
“Hitler was the fate of Germany and
this fate could not be stayed."
- Field Marshal Walther von
Brauchitsch, Commander of the
German Army (1938-1941)
“Those who do not remember
the past are condemned to
relive it."
-George Santayana
“Nothing in all the world is
more dangerous than sincere
ignorance and conscientious
stupidity.”
- Martin Luther King Jr.
What shapes a man’s will?
The Righteous of the Nations
http://www.yadvashem.org/yv/en/righteous/index.asp
• Attitudes towards the Jews during the Holocaust mostly ranged from indifference
to hostility. The mainstream watched as their former neighbors were rounded up
and killed; some collaborated with the perpetrators; many benefited from the
expropriation of the Jews property.
• In a world of total moral collapse there was a small minority who mustered
extraordinary courage to uphold human values. These were the Righteous Among
the Nations. They stand in stark contrast to the mainstream of indifference and
hostility that prevailed during the Holocaust. Contrary to the general trend, these
rescuers regarded the Jews as fellow human beings who came within the bounds of
their universe of obligation.
• Most rescuers started off as bystanders. In many cases this happened when they
were confronted with the deportation or the killing of the Jews. Some had stood by
in the early stages of persecution, when the rights of Jews were restricted and their
property confiscated, but there was a point when they decided to act, a boundary
they were not willing to cross. Unlike others, they did not fall into a pattern of
acquiescing to the escalating measures against the Jews.
“Everything can be taken from a man
but one thing; the last of the human
freedoms-to choose one's attitude in
any given set of circumstances, to
choose one's own way.”
- Viktor Frankl
THANK YOU!
…for your respectful attention & participation
Creation of Israel by way of United Nations Partition Plan (1947-48)
Voices on Antisemitism features a broad range of perspectives about antisemitism
and hatred today. Subscribe to Voices on Antisemitism on iTunes or by RSS feed,
listen to individual programs online, or use Voices on Antisemitism in your class. The
opinions expressed in these interviews do not necessarily represent those of the
Museum.
http://www.ushmm.org/confrontantisemitism/antisemitism-podcast/
David Draiman
http://www.ushmm.org/confrontantisemitism/antisemitism-podcast/daniel-craig
Blitzkrieg
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sj0o8_WPb-A
Blitzkrieg tactics
made the German
army seem
unstoppable. The
Nazi war machine
took just a month to
crush Poland. It then
turned its aggression
on other European
countries.
In Poland, the German armed
forces relied on a strategy of
blitzkrieg, or “lightning war.”
Without any warning, German
bombers launched attacks on
railroads, airfields,
communications networks,
military bases, and other
strategic sites. These attacks
helped prevent Polish
mobilization, the assembling of
troops and equipment for war.
Meanwhile, waves of infantry,
supported by tanks and artillery,
pushed toward key cities.
Germany’s method was to
outflank, surround, and destroy.
Motorized units quickly swept
around and encircled the Polish
army. Warplanes rained bombs
and bullets on the enemy. Then
the foot soldiers moved in to
finish the job.
Ill-equipped and overwhelmed,
the Polish forces quickly
collapsed.
What would you do, COACH?
• You are the head coach of a high school basketball team.
Your team is about to play the top-ranked team, which
has last year’s most valuable player (MVP) on its roster.
• You just found out that half of your team is caught in
traffic and will not make it in time for the start of the
game. What strategy will you pursue?
• You must choose one of the following strategies, then
explain your choice on your handout:
Play defense, stall,
and try to keep the
score close in hopes
that your other
players will arrive
soon.
Go on the offense
and attack the
opponent’s MVP,
hoping to tire him or
her and get him or
her to foul.
Attack the weakest
player, even if that
allows the MVP to
stay rested and
remain on offense.
How did the U.S. strategy compare to
the basketball game scenario?
• When the United States
entered World War II, the
Axis forces were superior
in both number and
strength, much like the
stronger team in the
Preview.
• Military analysts for the
United States and its allies
had to determine which
strategies to pursue to
defeat the dominating
Axis powers.
Military Analyst Team?
• Students will take on the roles of American
military analysts and make recommendations for
how to win the war.
• You will first evaluate military strategies by
examining background information and maps of
the battlefront.
• Finally, you will present your recommendations
in a “top secret” military briefing.
For which World War II military strategies or
actions do you think the United States should be
praised? Why?
2nd WRITING assignment COMING SOON!
(PEER review on back…2nd index card)
For which World War II military strategies or
actions do you think the United States should be
criticized? Why?
READ, THINK, and DISCUSS intelligently !
Respond honestly with the “skills of a historian.”
Does the “author” have legitimate and/or accurate
points?
(Agree or disagree?)
What NEW questions do you have?
If you had been president during the war, how might you have conducted the war differently?
Phase 2 of
Unit III
begins!
Visit
learntci.com
and use the
“map magnifier”
to locate ALL the
major items in
your annotated
map assignment!
Military Analyst Team:
Decision #1
Names:
Period #:
Prepare your recommendations by gathering
supporting arguments from the student texts
and accompanying map.
Military Analyst Team Circle your CONSENSUS choice,
then BRIEFLY explain your
Decision #1
reasoning (write).
Procedures for
military briefing:
Section 2 : Preparing for War in Europe
(p. 466-467)
North Africa
• Hitler hoped to cut off the Allies’ oil from the
Middle East by securing North Africa for the
Axis powers and pushing the British out of
Egypt.
• Hitler sent Field Marshal Erwin Rommel and
the Afrika Korps to join the Italian army in
North Africa.
• By June 1942, Rommel had taken much of
North Africa and had driven deep into Egypt.
Section 2 : Preparing for War in Europe
(p. 466-467)
Poland
• Poles were treated with contempt by the Nazis.
• Jews in Poland were forced into ghettos.
• Thousands of Jews died from disease and
starvation in the Warsaw Ghetto.
• Six death camps were built in Poland.
• Death camps were equipped with gas
chambers, in which tens of thousands were
killed each month.
Section 2 : Preparing for War in Europe
(p. 466-467)
Soviet Union
• The Nazis invaded the western part of the Soviet
Union.
• The Nazis used blitzkrieg tactics to overcome
Soviet troops.
• A large German force approached Moscow.
• A Nazi force marched toward the oil-rich Caucasus.
Military Analyst Team What was the CONSENSUS?
How did your reasoning
Decision #1
COMPARE to real WW II history?
Military Analyst Team
Decision #2
Prepare your BRIEF written recommendations
by gathering supporting arguments from the
student texts and accompanying map.
Military Analyst Team
Decision #2
Procedures for
military briefing:
a 2nd
HOPEFULLY, you read?: Sec. 3, War in Europe (1942-45)
(p. 468-471) and labeled & annotated your MAP?
Southern Italy
• The Allies used North Africa as a staging area to
invade the island of Sicily in southern Italy.
• The Allied assault met little opposition at first.
• Italy’s political leaders voted to oust Mussolini and
restore the king and parliament.
• Italy surrendered to the Allies and soon declared war
on Germany.
• German forces remained in Italy and battled Allied
forces as they moved north.
Section 3, War in Europe (1942-45)
(p. 468-471)
Stalingrad
• Axis troops moved farther into Soviet territory.
• Hitler split his forces so they could seize the rest of the
Caucasus and also take Stalingrad.
• By mid-September, Axis troops had trapped a large Soviet
force inside of Stalingrad.
• The Soviet Red Army launched a counteroffensive against
the Nazi assault.
• The German troops were surrounded, but Hitler insisted
that they fight to their death.
• German troops surrendered to the Soviets.
• More than 200,000 German and 1 million Soviet soldiers
died in the Battle of Stalingrad.
Section 3, War in Europe (1942-45)
(p. 468-471)
Normandy
• Operation Overlord called for an invasion of France.
• On D-Day, landing craft unloaded Allied troops on
the beaches of Normandy.
• German gun batteries targeted the invading Allies.
• By the end of the first day, the Allies held 59 miles of
the Normandy coast.
• From Normandy, Allied troops began a rapid sweep
across France and liberated Paris in August 1944.
Section 3, War in Europe (1942-45)
(p. 468-471)
Battle of the Bulge
• Hitler planned for his armies to burst through the
Allied lines in the Ardennes region of Belgium.
• On December 16, 1944, eight German armored
divisions smashed into the American forces,
creating a large bulge in the Allied line.
• Allied air support and the support of General Patton’s
Third Army forced the Germans to withdraw.
• The Battle of the Bulge was the last German offensive
on the western front.
What was the CONSENSUS?
How did your reasoning COMPARE
to real WW II history?
Military Analyst Team
Decision #2
Military Analyst Team
Decision #3
Military Analyst Team
Decision #3
Prepare your recommendations by gathering
supporting arguments from the texts and
accompanying map. WRITE!
Procedures for
military briefing:
READ: Section 4, Preparing for War in the Pacific
(p. 472-474)
Philippines
• Under the command of General MacArthur, Americans and
Filipinos battled a fierce Japanese onslaught.
• Roosevelt ordered MacArthur to leave the Philippines, but
MacArthur vowed to return.
• After the Japanese completed their conquest of the
Philippines, they rounded up approximately 70,000
American and Filipino prisoners and marched them up
the Bataan Peninsula to a prison camp.
• During the Bataan Death March, more than 7,000
American and Filipino prisoners died.
READ: Section 4, Preparing for War in the Pacific (p.
472-474)
Tokyo
• On April 18, 1942, 16 American bombers
bombed Tokyo and other Japanese cities.
• The bombs did little damage to Japan, but the
surprise raids thrilled Americans and
shocked the Japanese.
• The Japanese responded by putting more
resources into defending the home islands.
READ: Section 4, Preparing for War in the Pacific (p.
472-474)
Coral Sea
• After American code breakers learned that Japan was moving
to isolate Australia, the Americans sent a small naval
force to the Coral Sea.
• The Battle of the Coral Sea was fought entirely by carrier
based aircraft.
• This was the first naval battle in history in which the enemies’
warships never came within sight of each other.
• Japanese aircraft sank two American carriers, while American
planes sank one Japanese carrier and damaged the other
two.
• Americans gained a strategic victory despite fairly even losses.
READ: Section 5, War in the Pacific (1942-45)
(p. 474-477)
Midway
• The Americans intercepted a coded Japanese
message telling of plans for a major offensive,
most likely at the U.S base at Midway.
• American planes demolished the enemy force.
• Japan never recovered from the loss of naval
carriers and so many of its experienced pilots.
• The Battle of Midway was Japan’s last offensive
action in the war.
READ: Section 5, War in the Pacific (1942-45)
(p. 474-477)
Okinawa
• Knowing that Okinawa would give the Americans a prime
staging area for the invasion of Japan, Japanese
military leaders moved their best army units from
Japan and China to defend the island.
• The Allies launched a large amphibious invasion in April
1945.
• The Japanese strongly resisted the American invaders.
• Combat in Okinawa continued for two months and
claimed the lives of more than 100,000 American
and Japanese soldiers.
Military Analyst Team
Decision #3
What was the
CONSENSUS?
How did your reasoning
COMPARE to real WW II
history?
Military Analyst Team
Decision #4
Military Analyst Team
Decision #4
Prepare your recommendations by gathering
supporting arguments from the text and
accompanying map. WRITE!
Procedures for
military briefing:
a final
READ: Section 5, War in the Pacific (1942-45)
(p. 474-477)
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
• On August 6, 1945 an American bomber dropped an atomic
bomb on the city of Hiroshima, instantly killing as many
as 80,000 Japanese.
• Thousands of structures toppled and hundreds of fires
consumed the city as a result of the bombing.
• Three days later the United States dropped a second atomic
bomb on the city of Nagasaki, instantly killing some
40,000 people.
• As a result of the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, up to
250,000 people may have died from burns, radiation
poisoning, or cancer.
• The destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki brought a
Japanese surrender.
Military Analyst Team
Decision #4
What was the CONSENSUS?
How did your reasoning COMPARE
to real WW II history?
For which World War II military strategies or
actions do you think the United States should be
praised? Why?
2nd WRITING assignment COMING SOON!
(PEER review on back…2nd index card)
For which World War II military strategies or
actions do you think the United States should be
criticized? Why?
READ, THINK, and DISCUSS intelligently !
Respond honestly with the “skills of a historian.”
Does the “author” have legitimate and/or accurate
points?
(Agree or disagree?)
What NEW questions do you have?
If you had been president during the war, how might you have conducted the war differently?
For which World War II military strategies or
actions do you think the United States should be
praised? Why?
2nd WRITING assignment COMING SOON!
(PEER review on back…2nd index card)
For which World War II military strategies or
actions do you think the United States should be
criticized? Why?
READ, THINK, and DISCUSS intelligently !
Respond honestly with the “skills of a historian.”
Does the “author” have legitimate and/or accurate
points?
(Agree or disagree?)
What NEW questions do you have?
If you had been president during the war, how might you have conducted the war differently?
World War II
video outline found inside Unit III packet