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Lesson 1
• 1. Hitler came to believe that the Germans were
a superior race who should rule all others. He
planned to conquer the Soviet Union so the
Germans could expand their population, using
as slaves the people who already lived there.
• 2. Most world powers were so traumatized by
World War I that they were desperate to avoid
another war. They were also distracted by
economic problems.
Lesson 2
• 3. He used a blitzkrieg, or "lightning war" in
which armored panzer divisions were backed up
by airplanes. Each panzer division was a strike
force of about 300 tanks, which broke through
defensive lines effectively. Hitler moved fast to
surprise the Allies, convince them of German
superiority, and make them lose hope.
• 4. In June 1942, at Midway Island, the United
States established naval superiority in the
Pacific. In August 1942, Americans attacked
Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands.
Lesson 3
• 5. In all four nations, children had less of everything, including food.
British children were relocated. In the Soviet Union, children suffered
from severe housing shortages and many died of starvation.
Children in the United States experienced housing shortages and
racism. In Germany and occupied Eastern Europe, many schools
were closed. Many children lost one or both parents in the war. Late
in the war, young German teens served on the front lines. Japan
mobilized everyone over the age of 12.
• 6. The goal of targeting civilians was to force peace by causing fear
and undermining morale. British, German, and Japanese civilians
became more determined to win the war. Until the United States
used atomic bombs it was not successful.
Lesson 4
• 7. The Nazis used an elite guard, the Einsatzgruppen, to round up
Jews in their villages and execute them. At labor and death camps,
many people were starved, killed, or subjected to deadly medical
• 8. Japan used the slogan to try to persuade the countries it took
over that it was rescuing them from Western colonizers. But the
reality was that power rested with Japanese authorities.
• Lesson 5
• 9. The Allies probably could not have beaten Germany if the D-Day
invasion had failed because its enormous size was crucial to
defeating the well-provisioned German army.
• 10. After World War II, Western countries feared an international
Communist conspiracy, and the Soviet Union feared global
domination by capitalist countries.
21st Century Skills
• 11. Japan needed raw materials found in those
regions. If it attacked Southeast Asia, it would
lose the raw materials it was receiving from the
United States.
• 12. The Final Solution was to try to kill every Jew
in Europe. Among the effects were the murders
of nearly two out of every three European Jews.
Ever since the Holocaust, people have grappled
with its horror and inhumanity.
Document-Based Questions
• 14. He calls Japan "the enemy" to
convince the American people and the
world that the United States was
defending itself when it dropped the
atomic bomb.
• 15. It is not inaccurate, but it is incomplete.
It does emphasize the sheer power of the
bomb, but it does not acknowledge that
most of the victims were civilians.
Extended-Response Questions
• 16. Germany wanted to be a superior race that
ruled the world. Japan wanted other countries'
natural resources. Both powers forced millions of
native peoples to work for their war machines.
Germany also committed mass murder. Like
Nazi Germany, Imperial Japan used both
prisoners of war and local people as slave labor.
In Vietnam, for example, more than a million
people starved when Japanese officials forcibly
took their rice.
Reviewing Understanding
What grandiose plan motivated Hitler to strengthen the German military, send
troops into the demilitarized Rhineland, and expand Germany's authority over
Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Poland? (Answers may include that Hitler believed in
the superiority of the Germans and a so-called Aryan race and planned to build a
German empire that would dominate Europe for a thousand years.)
How did Germany's alliances with Italy and Japan fit into Hitler's plan? (Japan
and Italy did not object to Hitler's expansion, as did Great Britain and France. The
Italian dictator Mussolini had his own plans to expand when he invaded Ethiopia, as
did Japan when it invaded Manchuria and Inner Mongolia, and it hoped to seize
Siberia with Germany's help.)
What action might countries take if they objected to another country's
expansion? (Answers may include engaging in war or forming alliances with other
like-minded countries as a deterrent to further expansion.)
How did alliances lead to the global expansion of war? (Answers may include
that when Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, the United States declared war on Japan,
and four days later Germany declared war on the United States. Great Britain, the
United States, and Russia formed an alliance to defeat Germany and Japan.)
What was the scale of the destruction of human life during World War
II? (Millions of soldiers and civilians died during the war. Families were separated
from each other and displaced from their homes, and many became refugees in other
countries. About six million European Jews died, and millions of people from other
ethnicities died from the actions of the Nazis during World War II.)
How did the bombing of cities such as London, Berlin, Cologne, Dresden,
Hiroshima, and Nagasaki affect how the world recovered after the
war? (Answers may include that many areas were devastated during the war, and
rebuilding took resources and money, both of which were scarce.)
Seventeen million soldiers on both sides were killed in battle, as were 20 million
civilians, many of whom were children.
In the Russian city of Leningrad, 1.5 million people died when Germans besieged the
city for 900 days. In the United States, 110,000 Japanese on the West Coast were
sent to internment camps.
In Britain, 6 million children were moved due to the German bombing of London, and
some never saw their parents again.
Half a million German civilians died when the Allies bombed German cities.
German children as young as 14 or 15 fought in the last years of World War II.
The Nazis murdered six million Jews and caused the deaths of nine to ten million
non-Jews; three to four million Poles, Ukrainians, and Belorussians died as slave
Three to four million Soviet prisoners of war were killed.
In Vietnam, one million people starved due to the Japanese confiscating rice grown
by native people.
The United States destroyed the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki with
atomic bombs, which resulted in the immediate deaths of thousands and thousands
more died later from radiation.