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• When it comes to solving real-world
problems, leading-edge hardware is only
part of the solution. A complete solution
also requires a powerful and efficient
operating system. Today’s de facto
standard for high-performance computing
is the UNIX operating system.
• Following are some of the
implementations of UNIX offered
by various vendors:
• Cray Research developed the UNICOS
operating system, which is a superset
of the UNIX operating system.
• UNICOS includes enhancements for
parallel scalability, system availability,
resource management, and highbandwidth I/O.
• UNICOS was designed for highly
parallel, multi-user environments.
• UNICOS delivers the scalability
needed to process large, complex
workloads quickly and efficiently.
• Even though greatly enhanced,
UNICOS remains a standard UNIX
system, thus it provides a familiar
operating environment to the user
• UNICOS provides several
advanced utilities to help manage
key resources.
• Utilities include a Unified Resource
Manager (URM) that monitors system
activity and dynamically adjusts
scheduling utilities to manage batch
and interactive workloads.
• UNICOS also provides:
– Detailed and sophisticated resource accounting
– A user database and quota system
– A political scheduler that ensures fair
distribution of resources
– A Data Migration Facility that monitors disk
usage and transfers infrequently used files to
offline storage as needed
• As processor speeds have increased,
standard UNIX systems with limits on
file size and data transfer rates have
been overwhelmed.
• UNICOS was designed with high I/O
bandwidth specifically to avoid the I/O
bottlenecks that plague workstation
• UNICOS I/O scales with the
processors in a system and keeps them
busy with raw and unbuffered I/O that
bypasses standard UNIX system
• UNICOS is structured around the
kernel, with the system calls acting as
the intermediary between the kernel
and the commands, operating system
features, programming features, and
• UNICOS users should be familiar with the
following UNIX basics:
Man pages
User commands
File system
Jobs and processes
Environment variables
Text editors
Basic User Concepts
• Man pages: Online documentation
• User commands perform functions such as:
Communication with other users (talk, write)
File manipulation (create, copy, move, remove)
File examination (view, search, compare)
Perform I/O tasks (printing, echoing, reading)
Process control (execution, monitoring, and
– Invoke, monitor and control UNICOS features,
products and applications
Basic User Concepts
• UNICOS File System
– Regular files
– Directory files
– Special files
– Migrated files (offline files)
– Symbolic link files
Basic User Concepts
• Jobs and Processes
– A program is an executable file
– A process is an instance of a program in
– A process is the basic unit of work on UNICOS
– The ps command reports process information
and allows the user to monitor process status
Basic User Concepts
• Shells - A shell provides an interface
between the user and the kernel. The shell
interprets commands and command options
entered at the command-line prompt and
initiates the appropriate actions in the
– UNICOS supports two shells:
• The Korn shell (default)
• The C shell
Basic User Concepts
• Environment variables - The environment
is the set of characteristics that determine
how you interact with the shell. The
UNICOS operating system lets you modify
these characteristics with special predefined
environment variables. Environment
variables usually have a default value if you
do not explicitly define them.
Basic User Concepts
• Editors - Several text editors are available
in UNICOS, each of which has its own
style, advantages, and disadvantages.
Currently available editors are:
– Vi
– Ed
– Emacs