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SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE
FABRICATION
AN OVERVIEW
Presented to
EE 1001
29 September 2015
by
Stan Burns
[email protected]
MWAH 153
OUTLINE
What is a Monolithic (“Single Stone”) Integrated Circuit (IC)?
Fabrication and Integrated Circuit Overview
Dimensions and Units
Historical Perspectives
State-of-the-Art in Size and Density-Moore’s “Law”
Materials
Photolithography
Basic process sequence
Typical Device Cross-Sections
Other Devices and Technologies
Basic Processing Steps Summary
Packaging
Challenges and Opportunities in the Semiconductor Industry
For EE Graduates
IC Fabrication Overview
Procedure of Silicon Wafer Production
Raw material ― Polysilicon
nuggets purified from sand
Si crystal ingot
Crystal pulling
A silicon wafer fabricated
with microelectronic circuits
Final wafer product after polishing,
cleaning and inspection
Slicing into Si wafers
using a diamond saw
3
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
1 micrometer (1 mm) = 10-6m = 10-4cm
1 Å = 10-10m = 10-8cm (Å =Angstrom)
10,000 Å = 1 mm = 1000 nm
1 nanometer (1 nm) = 10-9 m = 10 Å
Wavelength of visible light 0.4 mm(violet) to 0.7 mm(red)
{400 nm to 700 nm, 4,000 Å to 7,000 Å }
1 mil = 0.001 inch = 25.4 mm
Sheet of notebook paper about 4 mils
1 human hair = 75 mm to 100 mm = 75,000-100,000 nm
Atomic spacing in a crystal ~ 3 to 5 Å
Fingernail growth rate about 1-3 mm/hour (Not personally verified)
Aggressive production minimum feature sizes, tens of nm,
14-16 nm used in the iPhone 6S A9 microprocessor.
Stanley G. Burns
UMD-ECE
<128 GByte $35, @
Best Buy 27 Sept.
2015)
16 nm
BASIC PROCESSING STEPS
Design Then
Repeated Application Of:
Oxidation
Nitridation
Photolithography
Wet Etching (Chemical)
Dry Etching (Plasma)
Diffusion
Evaporation
Sputtering
Plasma Assisted Deposition
Ion Implantation
Epitaxy
Many Processing Steps are at temperatures to
1200°C
OTHER DEVICES AND TECHNOLOGIES
Thin-Film Transistors (TFT)
Displays-Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD), Plasma, LED
Backlit, etc.
Photonic-Light Emitting Diodes (LED), Organic Light
Emitting Diodes (OLED), LASERS, Optical Chips, etc.)
Photovoltaics-Conventional Crystalline and Flexible ThinFilm
Devices and Systems on Flexible Substrates
Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) integration
of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, and electronics
on a common silicon substrate through microfabrication
technology. Electronics are fabricated using integrated circuit (IC)
process sequences (e.g., CMOS, Bipolar, or BICMOS processes)
 Micromechanical components are fabricated using compatible
"micromachining" processes that selectively etch away parts of the
silicon wafer or add new structural layers to form the mechanical
and electromechanical devices.
Challenges in the Semiconductor Industry
For EE Graduates
Design devices
Biological integration
Design circuits and systems
Optoelectronic integration
Device modeling
System design and fabricationDisplays
Circuit/system simulations
Sensors including
“Wearables)
Testability
MEMs (Design/Application)
Materials (Si, III-V,
Graphene
Non-traditional substrates
How small? Nanomaterials? Packaging
How large? Wafer Scale?
Process development
Speed and performance, for Process Control
analog, digital and mixed“Tool” and plant design
mode applications
Cradle to grave materials
handling
Increased functionality