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Communication
Chapter 4
Copyright 1998 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
4-1
Learning Objectives
Explain the basic communication process
and define cross-cultural communication
Understand how language affects
communication and how different cultures
use the four styles of verbal
communication
Discuss various types of nonverbal
communication
Copyright 1998 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
4-2
Learning Objectives (cont.)
Enhance your cross-cultural
communication skills
Identify major barriers to
communicating cross-culturally
Copyright 1998 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
4-3
Communication
The process of transmitting
thoughts or ideas from one
person to another
Copyright 1998 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
4-4
The Communication Process
Noise
Sender
Thought
Encoding
Receiver
Transmitting
Receiving
Decoding
Understanding
Feedback
Copyright 1998 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
4-5
Cross-Cultural Communication
Differences
Language Usage
Verbal Communication Styles
Nonverbal Communication
Copyright 1998 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
4-6
Major Characteristics of the
Four Verbal Styles
Verbal
Style
Direct Vs.
Indirect
Variation
Major
Characteristic
Cultures
Where Found
Direct
Message is more explicit
Individualistic, low-context
Indirect
Message is more implicit
Collective, high-context
Quantity of talk is
relatively high
Moderate uncertainty
avoidance, high-context
Exacting
Quantity of talk is
moderate
Low uncertainty
avoidance, low-context
Succinct
Quantity of talk
relatively low
High uncertainty avoidance,
high-context
Elaborate Vs.
Succinct
Elaborate
Copyright 1998 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
4-7
Major Characteristics of the
Four Verbal Styles (cont.)
Verbal
Style
Personal Vs.
Contextual
Variation
Major
Characteristic
Cultures
Where Found
Personal
Focus on speaker
“personhood”
Low power distance,
individualistic, low context
Contextual
Focus of role of
speaker, role
relationships
High power distance,
collective, high-context
Language is goal
oriented, sender
focused
Individualistic, low-context
Instrumental
Instrumental
Vs. Affective
Affective
Language is process Collective, high-context
oriented, receiver
focused
Copyright 1998 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
4-8
Forms of Nonverbal
Communication
Kinesics
Communication through body movements,
including facial expression, gestures, and posture
Oculesics Communication through eye contact and gaze
Haptics
Communication through the use of body contact
Proxemics Communication through the use of space
Chronemics Communication through the use of time within a
culture
Chromatics Communication through the use of colors
Copyright 1998 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
4-9
Barriers to Cross-Cultural
Communication
Culture
Perception
Experience
Copyright 1998 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
4-10
Convergence or Divergence?
Increasing ease of
communication
Widespread use of
English
Similar words and
concepts in
different
languages
Number of
different languages
Barriers to crosscultural
communication
Copyright 1998 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
4-11
Implications for Managers
Cross-cultural communication a
critical skill
Awareness of differences can
improve communication skill
Important to learn other
languages
Copyright 1998 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
4-12