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Global Change Biology…
Global Change Biology…How
natural ecology changes by
human actions.
Species introductions…
Invasive species and role of herbivores
Invasive vs. native herbivores in the
control of plant species…
Emerging diseases and disease ecology…
Fungal disease and global decline of
Biodiversity threatened with extinction…
Areas with high levels of endemism and
species diversity = targeted for conservation
Identifying biodiversity “hotspots” for
targeting conservation efforts.
Changes in CO2 concentrations in
atmosphere over time…
Plant productivity responses to elevated CO2.
Experimental evidence of effect of elevated
Species differ in their response to elevated
Greenhouse effect --> global warming
Increase in global temperature since 1850
How has flowering time
changed over 150 years?
Response of first flowering date to mean
spring temperature.
Temperature increases since 1852 in Mass.,
including springtime temp that correlate with
flowering time.
Bottom temperatures in North Sea over past
30 years.
Have species expanded their ranges
Species richness over time…and its
correlation with temperature changes.
What is effect of elevated temperatures on
releasing C stored in boreal forest soils?
Elevated temperatures accelerate
decomposition (respiration by microbes),
reducing C
pool in soil.
Environmental degradation began with
changes in uses of energy and resources,
coinciding with our major increase in pop.
What is the earth’s carrying capacity
for humankind?
Ecological footprint, a measure of our
standard of living.
USA uses 10.3 ha per ind.
but has only 6.7 ha per
ind. available.
Globe has 1.7 ha for each
of us 7 billion people.
Can our current ‘habits’
of energy and resource
use be sustained?
Global ecology results from cumulative
actions of individuals, including ourselves!