Download Female

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Genealogical DNA test wikipedia, lookup

Human genetic variation wikipedia, lookup

Koinophilia wikipedia, lookup

Nucleic acid analogue wikipedia, lookup

History of genetic engineering wikipedia, lookup

Microevolution wikipedia, lookup

Artificial gene synthesis wikipedia, lookup

Inbreeding avoidance wikipedia, lookup

Reproductive suppression wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Mammalian Reproductive Strategies
Prototheria (monotremes)
Metatheria (marsupials)
Eutheria (placentals)
Patterns of Social Behavior
Sociability: important characteristic for
most primates
Continuous interactions among a group
of individuals
Advantages of Group Living
• 1. Observational learning.
– Reduces necessity of individual trial-anderror learning.
• 2. Possibile genetic resistance to disease
and parasites.
• 3. Efficient location of food resources
• 4. Increases the reproductive fitness of
group members.
Social groupings
What kind of social grouping?
Polygyny: one reproductively mature (RM) male, several RM females
Gelada baboon
Lip retraction: threat display
•
•
•
•
•
Individuals are solitary
Males are intolerant of one another.
Single male establishes a large territory.
Contains several females
Each female has her own separate home range
• Polygyny
• Extensive home ranges
Multi-male; multi-female
groups
Overlapping territories
• Multi-male, multi-female groups
• Non-aggressive
• Human societies extremely diverse
• Monogamy
• Polygamy
– polygyny and polyandry
• For most of human evolution - and for most women in
the world today, menstruation is a rare occurrence
• Repetitive pregnancies and long periods of lactation
Fundamental intersexual reproductive strategies
• Female.
• Maximize resources available to her and her offspring.
• Female primates spend most of their adult lives
pregnant, lactating, and caring for offspring.
• High energy demands.
• Male.
• Produce many offspring and make sure they are yours.
• Non-human primates: androgen levels fluctuate in
response to female receptivity.
Mammalian female reproductive cycle
Female primates
Hormonal suppression of sexual cycles
Nonhuman Cultural Behavior
•
•
•
•
•
Learned behavior shared between generations. t
Chimpanzees: tool use
Spearing of bushbabies
Termite fishing with modified stems and twigs.
Have a preconceived idea of what the finished
tool needs to be in order to be useful.
• May make the tool in advance of the
opportunity for use.
• Preparing for the future. Requires planning and
forethought.
Meat component of chimpanzee diet
Bone review
Genetic similarities and differences
Human and ape chromosomes
A phyletic classification of families
mtDNA
4,700 base sequence
Genes for 11 tRNAs
6 proteins
Human-chimpanzee relationship
1023 more likely than
Chimpanzee-gorilla relationship
Y DNA
Base sequence for
Testis-specific protein Y
Autosomal DNA
Base sequence of
Beta-globin gene cluster
A cladistic classification of families