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Bio- molecules Life Two or more atoms bonded together • Bio-molecules are large molecules that make up living things. Carbohydrates Proteins (sugars) Nucleic Acids Lipids (fats) What is a controlled experiment? • Suppose you wanted to learn how a certain fertilizer affects the growth of different varieties of plants. • Your hypothesis states that the presence of this fertilizer will increase the growth rate of each plant variety. What is a controlled experiment? • An experimental crop setup is designed to test the hypothesis. • Fertilizer is present in the soil with the experimental plants, but not in the soil with the controls. • All other conditions that are kept the same for both groups- soil, light, water- are constants Designing an experiment • The single thing in an experimental group that is different is the independent variable Think of the definition of “independent” • What is the independent variable in the plant experiment? Designing an experiment • During the experiment, the thing you are trying to measure is the dependent variable. Think of the definition of “dependent” The dependent variable occurs as a result of the independent variable • What is the dependent variable in the plant experiment? (What are we measuring as a result of the fertilizer) PRE- LAB INFORMATION FOR: ENZYME ACTION LAB For this lab, we are going to focus on the bio-molecule: Protein….specifically, Enzymes A protein is a large, complex polymer composed of smaller subunits called amino acids. So what? Why are proteins important???? You are composed of proteins- your skin, hair, eyes contain proteins….organs, muscles, bones… (everything that makes you…you.) • All actions, such as eating, running, and even thinking, depend on proteins called enzymes. • Enzymes are proteins in your body that control the chemical reactions needed for life. (breaking stuff down and putting stuff together) Why is this important??? Without enzymes…. PRE- LAB INFORMATION FOR: ENZYME ACTION LAB There is an enzyme called Catalase found in MOST organisms. This enzyme has the ability to break down H O (which is Hydrogen Peroxide) 2 2 Hydrogen Peroxide is toxic to most living organisms. H O is naturally produced in organisms as a by-product of cellular respiration (when your cells are making energy). 2 2 Catalase quickly arrives on the scene to destroy the Hydrogen Peroxide before it can do too much damage. Catalase speeds up the process of breaking down the Hydrogen Peroxide molecule into water and oxygen. 2 H2O2 2 H2O + O2 2 H2O2 2 H2O 2 H2O2 O2 We will be using CHICKEN LIVERS which naturally contains the enzyme protein CATALASE in its cells. We can measure the rate of this chemical reaction by measuring the rate of the appearance of oxygen (O2) You will need to choose an independent variable to use. So brainstorm things you think you can of that could possibly affect the rate of the chemical reaction For instance: I wonder how the amount of chicken liver affects the rate of the chemical reaction. Hypothesis, the more chicken liver I use in a trial, the faster the hydrogen peroxide will break down into water and oxygen.