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-Jasmine Kaur
An antibody is a protein used by the immune
system to identify and neutralize foreign
objects like bacteria and viruses. Each
antibody recognizes a specific antigen unique
to its target.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies
that are identical because they were produced
by one type of immune cell, all clones of a
single parent cell.
Polyclonal antibodies are antibodies that are
derived from different cell lines.
Derived from different B
Lymphocytes cell lines
Derived from a single B cell clone
Batch to Batch variation
affecting Ab reactivity & titre
mAb offer Reproducible, Predictable
& Potentially inexhaustible supply
of Ab with exquisite specificity
NOT Powerful tools for clinical
diagnostic tests
Enable the development of secure
immunoassay systems.
The application of monoclonal antibodies can
be broadly categorized as:
 a)
Diagnostic application
 b) Therapeutic application
 c) Catalytic MAb (Abzymes)
MAbs are utilized in diagnostic kits for the diagnosis of various
infectious diseases, detecting pregnancy, monitoring drug
levels, matching histocompatibility antigen, detecting diabetes,
cancer and in immunoscintigraphy.
FDA licensed a new diagnostic imaging agent that can determine
the extent of disease in patients diagnosed with small cell lung
cancer (SCLC). Because these agents can detect tumor in
different part of the body at one time, it can help physician to
advice certain patients with advanced forms of the disease about
treatment option without requiring further diagnostic tests.
The new agent, Nofetumomab, is a fragment of a monoclonal
antibody that when tagged with the radioisotope technique, can
detect a protein found on the surface of most small lung cancer
Improving the out come of bone marrow transplantation by using
CD52 MAbs to prevent Graft-Versus-Host disease and Graft
rejection. Graft-versus-Host Disease (GVHD) is a major cause of
mortality and mobidity after allogenic bone marrow
transplantation, but can be avoided by removing T-lymphocytes
from the donor bone marrow.
However, T-cell depletion increases the risk of graft rejection.
This study examined the use of CD52 MAb to eliminate T- cells
from both donor marrow and recipient to prevent both GVHD and
Alemtuzumab is the monoclonal antibody used for this purpose.
The antibodies are extremely efficient at binding ground
states of the target molecule while enzymes obtained their
catalytic efficiency from tight binding of the transition
state for the reaction.
Thus antibodies can be made efficient catalysts if they are
made for reaction transition state.
Lemer and his co-workers explored the probability of
enzyme like action of antibodies by producing haptencarrier complex where the hapten structurally resembled
transition state and anti-hapten MAbs generated, gave
catalytic activity.
The hydrolysis of substrate increased thousand fold after