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Chapter Eleven:
Living With Cancer
(c) 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cancer
Cell regulation problem causing
abnormal cell growth
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Regulatory gene process – copying, replicating normal
cells on a regular basis
Oncogenes – cancer-causing genes affecting 4 types of
gene processes
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specialization
replication
repair
suppression genes
Proto-oncogenes = potential cancer genes affecting the 4
phases of gene process
Oncogene Formation
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Three mechanisms are responsible for this
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Genetic mutations
Viral infections
Carcinogens
The Cancerous Cell
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The following characteristics separate them
from non-cancerous cells (benign)
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Infinite life expectancy due to telomerase
Lacks contact inhibition
Process of metastasis (see Figure 11-1)
Angiogenesis capability to command the
circulatory system, when needed
Benign tumors do not spread but can be dangerous if they crowd out normal tissues
Staging Cancer

There has been an identification system known
as the TNS staging system
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T = recognizes the extent of malignancy
N = progressed or not to the lymph node
S = presence or absence of metastasis
A numerical system tracks the extent of the growth
potential of cancer (I, II, III, or IV)
Types of Cancer
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Carcinomas – 85% of all
cancers tend to be classified
here (organs, skin, nerves,
membranes)
Sarcomas – bone, blood,
connective tissue (2% of
malignant cancers)
Lymphomas – immune
tissues/system (i.e.,
Hodgkins Disease)
Leukemia - blood and blood
forming tissues (bone
marrow)
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Melanoma-sun exposed
affecting the melanin of
the skin
Neuroblastomaoriginates in the CNS of
children
Adenocarcinoma-cells
of the endocrine glands
Hepatoma- originates in
the cells of the liver
Lung Cancer

Risk Factors
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Prevention
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Smoking
Environmental pollutants
Remove smoke element
Treatment
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Surgery
Radiation
Chemotherapy
Medications
Full recovery remains unlikely in all but a small percentages of cases
Breast Cancer
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Risk factors
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Prevention
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Early menstrual cycle for women
Women with no children or having children later in life
Hormone replacement therapy use
Diet
Mammography
Activity levels
Pregnancy and breastfeeding decisions
Occupational hazards
New medications
Treatment
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Lumpectomy
Drug therapy
Chemotherapy/radiation treatments
Preventive Measures, cont’d
Self checks for breast cancer
Breast cancer is still the #1 cause for women
Cervical Cancer
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Risk factors
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Prevention
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HPV infection
Smoking and socioeconomic factors
Sexual abstinence
Pap tests
Careful selection of sexual partners
Treatment
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Surgery (minor or major)
Radiation/chemotherapy
Uterine Cancer
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Risk Factors
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Prevention
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Early menarche, late menopause, lack of ovulation, never
having given birth, ERT, use of tamoxifen, and also in
diabetics, obese, and hypertensive women
Minimize high levels of estrogen and regular physician
care
Treatment

Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, hormone treatment
Ovarian Cancer
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Prevention
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Similar to what is recommended for breast cancer
Prophylactic oophorectomy
Early Detection

Referred as the “silent cancer”
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Annual pelvic exams
Genetic screenings
Treatment
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Surgery
Chemotherapy
Drug therapy
Prostate Cancer
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Risk factors
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Prevention
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Dietary intake of Vitamin E and selenium, drug
therapy
Early Detection
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Age, dietary fat intake, genetic link
PSA screenings, ultrasound rectal exam
Treatment
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Surgery, radiation, brachytherapy
Testicular Cancer
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Risk factors
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Prevention
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Self exams
Early Detection
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Family history, environmental factors
Observations and self exams
Treatment
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Surgery, chemotherapy, radiation
Preventive Measures, cont’d
Self checks for testicular cancer
Testicular cancer is the #1 cause for men aged 18-35
Colorectal Cancer
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Risk factors
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Prevention
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Removal of polyps, exercise, dietary supplementation
Early Detection
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Genetic and dietary habits
Rectal exams, stool test, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy
Treatment
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Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy
Pancreatic Cancer
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Risk Factors
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Prevention
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Abstaining from smoking, alcohol, promote exercise and
wt. loss
Early detection
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More common in men, smoking, high fat diets and high
alcohol consumption
CAT scan
Treatment
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No effective treatment at this time
Lymphatic Cancer
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Risk Factors
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Prevention
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Limit exposure to chemicals
Early Detection
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Reduction of immune system, exposure to pollutants, viral
infections
Enlarged lymph nodes, fever, wt. loss
Treatment

Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, stem cell transplant
Skin Cancer
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Risk factors
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Prevention
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Reduce exposure to sun’s rays, use sunscreens,
Early Detection
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Severe sunburn during childhood, chronic sun
exposure during young adulthood
American Cancer Society guidelines (next slide)
Treatment

Surgery, chemotherapy, interleukin-2
American Cancer Society
Figure 11-3)
Promote early detection (i.e., self checks
for skin cancer)
Asymmetry
Border irregularity
Color change
Diameter greater than 6mm
Elevation (raised margins)
Preventive Measures
Identify the 7 warning signs of cancer
Change in bowel/bladder habits
A sore that does not heal
Unusual bleeding or discharge
Thickening of tissues (schlerotic change)
Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
Obvious change in a wart/mole
Nagging cough
Preventive Measures, cont’d
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See your doctor regularly
Decrease your exposure to hazardous chemicals/pollutants
Modify dietary habits and promote fiber intake
Understand the concepts of “anti-oxidants”
Partake in regular forms of physical activity
Practice healthy sexual behaviors
Chapter Eleven:
Living With Cancer
(c) 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.