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Chapter Eleven: Living With Cancer (c) 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Cancer Cell regulation problem causing abnormal cell growth Regulatory gene process – copying, replicating normal cells on a regular basis Oncogenes – cancer-causing genes affecting 4 types of gene processes specialization replication repair suppression genes Proto-oncogenes = potential cancer genes affecting the 4 phases of gene process Oncogene Formation Three mechanisms are responsible for this Genetic mutations Viral infections Carcinogens The Cancerous Cell The following characteristics separate them from non-cancerous cells (benign) Infinite life expectancy due to telomerase Lacks contact inhibition Process of metastasis (see Figure 11-1) Angiogenesis capability to command the circulatory system, when needed Benign tumors do not spread but can be dangerous if they crowd out normal tissues Staging Cancer There has been an identification system known as the TNS staging system T = recognizes the extent of malignancy N = progressed or not to the lymph node S = presence or absence of metastasis A numerical system tracks the extent of the growth potential of cancer (I, II, III, or IV) Types of Cancer Carcinomas – 85% of all cancers tend to be classified here (organs, skin, nerves, membranes) Sarcomas – bone, blood, connective tissue (2% of malignant cancers) Lymphomas – immune tissues/system (i.e., Hodgkins Disease) Leukemia - blood and blood forming tissues (bone marrow) Melanoma-sun exposed affecting the melanin of the skin Neuroblastomaoriginates in the CNS of children Adenocarcinoma-cells of the endocrine glands Hepatoma- originates in the cells of the liver Lung Cancer Risk Factors Prevention Smoking Environmental pollutants Remove smoke element Treatment Surgery Radiation Chemotherapy Medications Full recovery remains unlikely in all but a small percentages of cases Breast Cancer Risk factors Prevention Early menstrual cycle for women Women with no children or having children later in life Hormone replacement therapy use Diet Mammography Activity levels Pregnancy and breastfeeding decisions Occupational hazards New medications Treatment Lumpectomy Drug therapy Chemotherapy/radiation treatments Preventive Measures, cont’d Self checks for breast cancer Breast cancer is still the #1 cause for women Cervical Cancer Risk factors Prevention HPV infection Smoking and socioeconomic factors Sexual abstinence Pap tests Careful selection of sexual partners Treatment Surgery (minor or major) Radiation/chemotherapy Uterine Cancer Risk Factors Prevention Early menarche, late menopause, lack of ovulation, never having given birth, ERT, use of tamoxifen, and also in diabetics, obese, and hypertensive women Minimize high levels of estrogen and regular physician care Treatment Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, hormone treatment Ovarian Cancer Prevention Similar to what is recommended for breast cancer Prophylactic oophorectomy Early Detection Referred as the “silent cancer” Annual pelvic exams Genetic screenings Treatment Surgery Chemotherapy Drug therapy Prostate Cancer Risk factors Prevention Dietary intake of Vitamin E and selenium, drug therapy Early Detection Age, dietary fat intake, genetic link PSA screenings, ultrasound rectal exam Treatment Surgery, radiation, brachytherapy Testicular Cancer Risk factors Prevention Self exams Early Detection Family history, environmental factors Observations and self exams Treatment Surgery, chemotherapy, radiation Preventive Measures, cont’d Self checks for testicular cancer Testicular cancer is the #1 cause for men aged 18-35 Colorectal Cancer Risk factors Prevention Removal of polyps, exercise, dietary supplementation Early Detection Genetic and dietary habits Rectal exams, stool test, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy Treatment Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors Prevention Abstaining from smoking, alcohol, promote exercise and wt. loss Early detection More common in men, smoking, high fat diets and high alcohol consumption CAT scan Treatment No effective treatment at this time Lymphatic Cancer Risk Factors Prevention Limit exposure to chemicals Early Detection Reduction of immune system, exposure to pollutants, viral infections Enlarged lymph nodes, fever, wt. loss Treatment Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, stem cell transplant Skin Cancer Risk factors Prevention Reduce exposure to sun’s rays, use sunscreens, Early Detection Severe sunburn during childhood, chronic sun exposure during young adulthood American Cancer Society guidelines (next slide) Treatment Surgery, chemotherapy, interleukin-2 American Cancer Society Figure 11-3) Promote early detection (i.e., self checks for skin cancer) Asymmetry Border irregularity Color change Diameter greater than 6mm Elevation (raised margins) Preventive Measures Identify the 7 warning signs of cancer Change in bowel/bladder habits A sore that does not heal Unusual bleeding or discharge Thickening of tissues (schlerotic change) Indigestion or difficulty swallowing Obvious change in a wart/mole Nagging cough Preventive Measures, cont’d See your doctor regularly Decrease your exposure to hazardous chemicals/pollutants Modify dietary habits and promote fiber intake Understand the concepts of “anti-oxidants” Partake in regular forms of physical activity Practice healthy sexual behaviors Chapter Eleven: Living With Cancer (c) 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.