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Cancer 101: A Cancer Education and Training Program for American Indians & Alaska Natives Version 2 – Updated October 2011 Date Location Presented by: Presenter 1 Presenter 2 Basics of Cancer Treatment Cancer 101 – Version 2 Learning Module 7 Learning Objectives At the completion of learning Module 7, you will be able to: Discuss the Western and traditional approach to cancer treatment Discuss the difference between local and systemic treatment for cancer Learning Objectives (cont’d) Describe the reason side effects occur with cancer treatment Describe at least two side effects that can occur as a result of cancer treatment Discuss the benefits of managing physical effects of cancer and cancer treatment How We Become Well Again For many AI/AN diagnosed with cancer, treatment often involves a blend of both Western medicine and traditional medicine. Both may be necessary in the fight against cancer. Western Medicine Characteristics of the Western medical approach to cancer treatment include: Science based. Focus on physical aspect of the disease. Team of special doctors working together to develop a treatment plan to fit the patient’s situation. Traditional Medicine Characteristics of traditional medicine include: A traditional healer establishes a long-term relationship with the person and their family Treatment plan focus is on the “whole person”. Holistic Approach Goal of treatment is centered on restoring harmony and balance. AI/AN are most likely to benefit when treatment is focused on a holistic approach that involves a blending of Western and traditional medicine. Cancer Treatment The treatment team: Patient Surgeons Medical oncologists Radiation oncologists Nurses Others The treatment plan: Surgery Chemotherapy Radiation therapy Hormone therapy Biological therapy Stem cell transplant Clinical trial Treatment Factors Treatment for cancer depends on the following factors: Type of cancer Size, location and stage of the disease General health of the individual Local or systemic treatment? Local treatment affects cancer cells in the tumor and the area near it: Surgery Radiation therapy Systemic treatment travels through the bloodstream reaching cancer cells all over the body: Chemotherapy Hormone therapy Biological therapy Treatment Methods - Surgery The removal of the cancerous tumor. May also include removal of the surrounding tissue and lymph nodes near the tumor. Photo credit: Linda Bartlett | Source: NCI Treatment Methods – Radiation Therapy Use of high-energy rays to kill cancer cells Types: Photo credit: Rhoda Baer | Source: NCI External (outside the body) Internal (implanted in the body) Treatment Methods - Chemotherapy The use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Can be given: Intravenously (through a vein) Oral/by mouth (pills) Injection (a shot in the skin tissue or muscle) Topical (applied on the skin) Photo credit: Rhoda Baer | Source: NCI Treatment Methods – Hormone Therapy Used against certain cancers that depend on hormones for their growth. Breast cancer Prostate cancer Anti-hormone treatment can cause these cancers to go away or be controlled for a time. Treatment Methods – Biological Therapy Also known as immunotherapy. May: Stop or slow the growth of cancer cells Make it easier for the immune system to destroy cancer cells Keep cancer from spreading to other parts of the body Treatment Methods – Stem Cell Transplantation Transplantation of blood-forming stem cells enable patients to receive high doses of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. Three types of stem cell transplants: Autologous Syngeneic Allogeneic Treatment Methods – Clinical Trials Research studies that evaluate promising new therapies and answer scientific questions. Cancer treatments available today are the result of clinical trial research. Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Complementary medicine Alternative medicine Ensure safe and coordinated care! Inform your provider about any therapies you use or are considering Side Effects Side effects depend mainly on the type and extent of the treatment. Surgery Pain Radiation therapy Tiredness, skin changes Chemotherapy Hair loss, anemia, tiredness, weakness, poor appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mouth or lip sores Biological therapy Flu-like symptoms Hormone therapy Weight gain, hot flashes, nausea Palliative Care Manage physical effects of cancer and/or its treatment. Given in addition to treatment throughout patient’s experience with cancer. Every person will have different palliative care needs. Research shows it improves quality of life. Case Study Martha had local and systemic treatment. Local: Systemic: Surgery to remove the breast tumor External radiation therapy to the breast after surgery. Tamoxifen after surgery for prevention Complementary Medicine: Yoga In Summary You now have an understanding of: Common cancer treatments and their potential side effects.