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Patton Cheung
Gurjeet Sandhu
Kezheng Li
Justin “Bieber” Ling
1. Company Overview
2. Risk Management Activities
3. Compensation Practices
Morgan Stanley is a global financial services
firm headquartered in New York City serving a
diversified group of corporations,
governments, financial institutions, and
individuals. Morgan Stanley also operates in
36 countries around the world, with over 600
offices and a workforce of over 60,000.
Global Offices
Headquartered in New
York City, US
Company History
Company History
Company History
Financial Crisis
Morgan Stanley Trading Price from 2001-2011
Financial Crisis
•Converted to bank holding company
Regulated by the Federal Reserve
No longer a securities firm
•Morgan Stanley borrowed $107.3 billion from the Fed during the
2008 crisis
•$ 9 billion invested by Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group
•Bought Smith Barney from Citigroup
Joint venture with Citigroup
No.1 in customer service among full-service brokerage firms
The company operates in three business segments
Institutional Securities
Global Wealth Management Group
Asset Management.
5 Year Net Revenue
Business Mix
Business Mix
Operating Committee
James P Gorman
Ruth Porat
Keishi Hotsuki
Bachelor’s degree in Economics
from Hitotsubashi University
Masters of Science in Industrial
Administration from Carnegie
Mellon University
Risk Management Philosophy
“Management believes effective risk management is vital to the
success of the Company’s business activities”
“The cornerstone of the Company’s risk management philosophy is
the execution of risk-adjusted returns through
prudent risk-taking that protects the Company’s capital base and
Five Key Principles
•Defined risk tolerance
Risk Governance Structure
Board of Directors
Audit Committee and the Risk Committee of the Board
Senior management oversight (including the Chief Executive
Officer, the Chief Risk Officer, the Chief Financial Officer,
the Chief Legal Officer and the Chief Compliance Officer)
Internal Audit Department
Independent risk management functions (including the
Market Risk Department, Credit Risk Management, the
Corporate Treasury Department and the Operational Risk
Company control groups (including the Human Resources
Department, the Legal and Compliance Division, the Tax
Department and the Financial Control Group)
Risk Committee
– Risk governance structure
– Risk management and risk assessment guidelines
and policies regarding market, credit and liquidity
and funding risk
– Risk tolerance
– Performance of the Chief Risk Officer
Fair Value Evaluation
Level 1—Valuations based on quoted prices in active
markets for identical assets or liabilities that the
company has the ability to access. Valuation
adjustments and block discounts are not applied to
Level 1
Level 2—Valuations based on one or more quoted
prices in markets that are not active or for which all
significant inputs are observable, either directly or
Level 3—Valuations based on inputs that are
unobservable and significant to the overall fair value
Fair Value Evaluation
Balance Sheet
Balance Sheet
Balance Sheet
Income Statement
Cash Flow
Risk Factors
Type of Risks
Operational risk
– Risk of losses arising from insufficient controls on
people, resources, and processes and external
factors such as compliance risk
Legal/Regulatory risk
– Risk of losses in fines, penalties, damages
resulting from noncompliance and legal actions
Credit risk
– Risk of default from borrowers
Type of Risks
Liquidity and funding risk
– Risk of difficulty in accessing capital markets,
inability to liquidate assets in a timely manner,
and threats to going concern in satisfying financial
Market risk
– Risk of losses arising from changes in market
prices, rates, volatility, and correlations
Type of Risks
Competitive environment risk
– Risks from competition
International risk
– Risks of losses from global operation
Acquisition risk
– Risk of losses from acquisitions, minority stakes,
forming joint ventures, and strategic alliances
Operating Risk
Sources of risk
– Increasingly complex and large volume of
transactions processed in various markets and
– Internal risks from employees and control
systems, and external risks from financial
intermediaries and other third parties
– Terrorist activities, diseases, and natural disasters
 contingency planning
Operating Risk Management
Operational risk Oversight Committee
– Chaired by CRO, provides oversight of operational
Operational risk manager
– Monitors, measures, analyzes and reports on
operational risk
– Independent of business segments
Business Manager
– Maintain processes and controls designed to
manage operational risk
Operating Risk Management
Business Continuity Management
– Contingency planning to ensure continuity of
operations in case of disaster
External vendors
– Risk managed through service level, contractual
agreements, service and quality reviews
Legal Risk
Extensive supervision from the Fed and
regulatory agencies
– Possibly stricter capital requirements and leverage
limits coming as soon 2010
Risk related to commodities activities
– Engages in production, storage, and
transportation of several commodities including
metals, agricultural and energy products
– Contamination may create liability even if MS is
not at fault
Legal Risk
Fiscal and monetary policy
– Various policies from central banks have effect on cost
of funds for lending, capital raising and investment
Conflict of interests
– Can result in enforcement by governing agencies
– Can result in public scrutiny or loss of business
Estimation errors
– For legal proceedings which involve substantial stake
and are in early stages, costs are hard to estimate
Legal Risk Management
Legal and Compliance Division
– “Develops various procedures addressing issues
such as regulatory capital requirements, sales and
trading practices, new products, potential conflicts
of interest, structured transactions, use and
safekeeping of customer funds and securities,
credit granting, money laundering, privacy and
Credit Risk
Institutional Securities Activities
Corporate lending
– Relationship-driven
• expand business relationships
– Event driven
• lending commitments for events such as acquisition and
mergers by clients
Securitized products
– Structuring, underwriting, and trading collateralized
– Risk borrower not performing according to agreement
and devaluation of collateral
Credit Risk
Institutional Securities Activities
Derivative contracts
– Dealer in OTC derivatives
– “Generally represent future commitments to swap
interest payment streams, exchange currencies, or
purchase or sell commodities and other financial
instruments on specific terms at specified future
•Derivative Instruments are used for trading,
foreign currency exposure management and
asset and liability management
•Risk mitigation strategies include
diversification of risk exposure and hedging
•Risk is managed on a company-wide basis,
worldwide trading division level and on an
individual product basis
Derivative Products
OTC Derivative Products
Derivative Products
Hedge Accounting
• The Company applies hedge accounting using various
derivative financial instruments and non-U.S. dollardenominated debt to hedge interest rate and foreign
exchange risk arising from assets and liabilities not held at
fair value as part of asset and liability management and
foreign currency exposure management.
• The Company’s hedges are designated and qualify for
accounting purposes as one of the following types of
hedges: exposure to changes in fair value of assets and
liabilities being hedged (fair value hedges) and foreign
operations whose functional currency is different from the
reporting currency of the parent company (net investment
• For all hedges where hedge accounting is being applied,
effectiveness testing is performed at least monthly.
Hedge Accounting
Fair Value Hedges – Interest Rate Risk
•Consist primarily of interest rate swaps designated
as fair value hedges of changes in the benchmark
interest rate of fixed rate senior long-term
Net Investment Hedges
•Forward foreign exchange contracts and non-U.S.
dollar-denominated debt used to manage the
currency exposure relating to its net investments in
non-U.S. dollar functional currency operations
Value of Hedges
Derivatives Designated as Fair Value
Derivatives Designated as Net
Investment Hedges
Derivative Instruments NOT
Designated as Accounting Hedges
• The table below summarizes gains (losses) on
derivative instruments not designated as
accounting hedges for 2010, 2009 and the one
month ended December 31, 2008,
OTC Credit Derivatives
OTC Credit Derivatives
Credit Risk
Global Wealth Management Group Activities
Commercial Lending
– Working capital lines of credit, revolving lines of
credit, standby letters of credit, term loans and
commercial real estate mortgages
– Involves the use of independent credit agencies
Margin Lending
– Reviews amount of the loan, the intended
purpose, the degree of leverage being employed
in the account
Credit Risk
Global Wealth Management Group Activities
Consumer Lending
– Mortgages, HELOC
– Evaluation of capacity and willingness to pay
• FICO scores, debt ratios, borrower’s reserves
Credit Risk Management
• Credit Risk Management Department
• Credit Limits Framework
Credit Risk Management
Credit Risk Management is responsible for
– Evaluating, monitoring and controlling credit risk
for each business segment
– Ensuring transparency of material credit risks,
compliance with established limits, approving
material extensions of credit, and communicating
with senior management regarding risk concerns
Analyzing Credit Risk
Transactions and creditworthiness of borrowers
reviewed regularly
At three levels: transaction, counterparty and portfolio
Produces credit ratings similar to external services
– BB+ below considered non-investment grade
Risk Mitigation
• Through management of key risks elements such as
size, financial covenants and collateral
• Sell, assign or sub-participate funded loans to other
financial institutions
• Enter master netting agreements and collateral
arrangements with counterparties to offset
obligations, request collateral or liquidate collateral
Credit Exposure
Country Exposure
Industry Exposure
Liquidity and Funding Risk
Liquidity is essential and external sources finance a
significant portion of operations
• Affected by inability to raise funds in the long/shortterm debt/equity capital markets or inability to access
secured lending markets
– Caused by:
• Disruption of the financial markets
• Negative views about the financial services industry
• Negative perception of long or short term financial prospects
– Large trading losses, downgraded or negative watch by rating agencies,
decline in business activity, action by regulators, employee misconduct or
illegal activity, and other reasons
– Would have to liquidate assets to meet maturing liabilities
and may have to sell at a discount
Liquidity Risk Management
•The principal elements of the company’s liquidity and
funding risk management framework are the
Contingency Funding Plan (CFP) and the Global Liquidity
•Uses Tier 1 common ratio and the balance sheet
leverage ratio as indicators of capital adequacy
Contingency Funding Plan
• The company’s primary liquidity and funding risk
management tool
• Outlines response to liquidity stress and uses stress
tests across multiple scenarios across various time
horizons to set forth a course of action
• Assumptions incorporated into the CFP:
No government support
No access to unsecured debt markets
Repayment of all unsecured debt maturing within one year
Higher haircuts and significantly lower availability of
secured funding
Global Liquidity Reserve
• Liquidity reserves used to cover daily funding needs and
meet liquidity targets sized by the CFP
• Held within parent company and major operating
• Comprised of cash and cash equivalents, securities
reserved or borrowed on an overnight basis, and pools of
federal reserve eligible securities
• All assets are unencumbered and not pledged as collateral
• Does not include other unencumbered assets that are
• The vast majority of the assets can be monetized on a nextday basis and the remainder of the assets can be
monetized within two to five business days.
Global Liquidity Reserve
Funding Management Policy
•Attempt to ensure tenor of liabilities equals or
exceeds the expected holding period of the assets
being financed
•Diversify funding sources
•Substantial portion of assets as liquid marketable
securities in order acquire secured financing
•Obtain longer-term secured financing for less liquid
•Stagger maturity for long-term borrowings to mitigate
refinancing risk
Funding Management Policy
• Credit rating affects ability to acquire funding
• CFP accounts for downgrade in credit rating
Changes in Capital Funding
Changes in Capital Funding
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
Commitment and Contractual Obligations
Basel III
• New capital standards that raise the
quality of capital, strengthen counterparty
credit risk capital requirements and
introduces a leverage ratio as a
supplemental measure to the risk-based
• New capital conservation buffer which
imposes a common equity requirement
above the new minimum that can be
depleted under stress
Basel III Implications
Basel III Implications
Basel III Implications
Market Risk
Primary Market Risk Exposure
• Credit Risk Spread
• Equity Prices Volatility
• Foreign Exchange
• Commodity
• Hedging
Market Risk Department
• Ensuring transparency of material market risk
• Monitoring compliance with established limits
• Escalating risk concentrations to appropriate senior
How responsibilities are carried out:
• Monitor risk against limits on aggregate risk exposures
• Perform risk analyses
• Report risk summaries
• Monitor risk through various measures
– Position sensitivity
– Routine stress testing
Value at Risk (VAR)
• Used to measure, monitor and review market risk exposures of its
trading portfolios
• VaR estimated by using a model based on historical simulation for
major market risk factors and Monte Carlo simulation for namespecific risk in corporate shares, bonds, loans and related derivatives
• Historical simulation involves constructing a distribution of
hypothetical daily changes in the value of trading portfolios based
on two sets of inputs
– Historical observation of daily changes in key market indices or other
market risk factors
– Information on the sensitivity of the portfolio values to these market
risk factor changes
• The company’s VaR model uses four years of historical data to
measure it’s 95%/one-day VaR which corresponds to the unrealized
loss in portfolio value that would have been exceeded with a
frequency of 5% or 5 times in every 100 trading days if the portfolio
were held constant for one day
VaR Benefits and Limitations
•Permits estimation of portfolio’s aggregate market risk exposure
•Reflects risk reduction due to portfolio diversification or hedging
•Past changes in market risk factors may not yield accurate predictions
•Changes in portfolio value may differ from responses calculated by a
VaR model
•Doesn’t fully capture market risk of positions that cannot be liquidated
or hedged within one day using a one day time frame
•Limited insight into losses that could occur in unusual market
•Understates risk associated with severe events
2010 95%/One-day VAR
95% and 99% Average Trading VaR
with Four-Year / One-Year
Historical Time Series
Interest Rate Risk Sensitivity
Competitive Environment Risk
• Strong competition from other financial
services firms
• Competition for qualified employee
• Automated trading markets may adversely
affect business and may increase competition
International Risk
• Subject to numerous political, economic, legal,
operational, franchise and other risks
• In many countries, the laws and regulations applicable to
the securities and financial services are uncertain, it is
difficult to determine the exact requirements of local
laws in every market.
• Various emerging market countries have experienced
severe political, economic and financial disruptions,
including significant devaluations of currencies, capital
and currency exchange controls and high rates of
Acquisition Risk
Unable to fully capture the expected value from acquisitions,
joint ventures, minority stakes and strategic alliances
• Need to combine accounting and data processing systems and
management controls and to integrate relationships with
clients and business partners
• Conflicts or disagreements between MS and its joint venture
partners may negatively impact the benefits
Compensation Practices
• Compensation practices are subject to oversight
by the Federal Reserve
• The Company is subject to the compensationrelated provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act
• In June 2010, the Federal Reserve and other
federal regulators issued final guidance in
accordance with compensation principles and
standards designed to encourage sound
compensation practices established by the
Financial Stability Board
Compensation Objectives and
• Attract and Retain Top Talent. The Company competes for talent globally
with commercial banks, brokerage firms, hedge funds and other
companies offering financial services. Long-term incentive awards
encourage executives not to leave the Company for a competitor
• Deliver Pay-for-Performance. Executive compensation program
emphasizes variable incentive compensation that is linked to Company
and individual performance
• Align Executive Compensation with Shareholders’ Interests. The Company
delivers a significant portion of long-term incentive compensation in
equity to align employee interests to increased shareholder value
• Evaluate Risk-taking and Compensation Arrangements. The CMDS
Committee works with the Company’s Chief Risk Officer and the CMDS
Committee’s independent consultant to help ensure that the structure
and design of compensation arrangements do not encourage unnecessary
and excessive risk-taking
Employee Stock-Based Compensation
• The accounting guidance for stock-based compensation
requires measurement of compensation cost for equity-based
awards at fair value and recognition of compensation cost
over the service period, net of estimated forfeitures
Deferred Stock Awards
Stock Awards