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Transcript
Chapter 6 Practice Test
Matching
Match each item with the correct statement below.
a. electronegativity
f.
b. ionization energy
g.
c. atomic radius
h.
d. metal
i.
e. transition metal
j.
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
periodic law
cation
period
group
electrons
1. horizontal row in the periodic table
2. vertical column in the periodic table
3. A repetition of properties occurs when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic
number.
4. type of element that is a good conductor of heat and electric current
5. type of element characterized by the presence of electrons in the d orbital
6. one-half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms when the atoms are joined
7. type of ion formed by Group 2A elements
8. subatomic particles that are transferred to form positive and negative ions
9. ability of an atom to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound
10. energy required to remove an electron from an atom
Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____ 11. What is another name for the representative elements?
a. Group A elements
c. Group C elements
b. Group B elements
d. transition elements
____ 12. What is another name for the transition metals?
a. noble gases
c. Group B elements
b. Group A elements
d. Group C elements
____ 13. Which of the following elements is in the same period as phosphorus?
a. carbon
c. nitrogen
b. magnesium
d. oxygen
____ 14. Each period in the periodic table corresponds to ____.
a. a principal energy level
c. an orbital
b. an energy sublevel
d. a suborbital
____ 15. The modern periodic table is arranged in order of increasing atomic ____.
a. mass
c. number
b. charge
d. radius
____ 16. Who arranged the elements according to atomic mass and used the arrangement to predict the
properties of missing elements?
a. Henry Moseley
c. John Dalton
b. Antoine Lavoisier
d. Dmitri Mendeleev
____ 17. Which of the following categories includes the majority of the elements?
a. metalloids
c. metals
b. liquids
d. nonmetals
____ 18. Of the elements Pt, V, Li, and Kr, which is a nonmetal?
a. Pt
c. Li
b. V
d. Kr
____ 19. To what category of elements does an element belong if it is a poor conductor of electricity?
a. transition elements
c. nonmetals
b. metalloids
d. metals
____ 20. In which of the following sets is the symbol of the element, the number of protons, and the
number of electrons given correctly?
a. In, 49 protons, 49 electrons
c. Cs, 55 protons, 132.9 electrons
b. Zn, 30 protons, 60 electrons
d. F, 19 protons, 19 electrons
____ 21. The atomic number of an element is the total number of which particles in the nucleus?
a. neutrons
c. electrons
b. protons
d. protons and electrons
____ 22. What element has the electron configuration 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p ?
a. nitrogen
c. silicon
b. selenium
d. silver
____ 23. Which of the following is true about the electron configurations of the noble gases?
a. The highest occupied s and p sublevels are completely filled.
b. The highest occupied s and p sublevels are partially filled.
c. The electrons with the highest energy are in a d sublevel.
d. The electrons with the highest energy are in an f sublevel.
____ 24. Elements that are characterized by the filling of p orbitals are classified as ____.
a. groups 3A through 8A
c. inner transition metals
b. transition metals
d. groups 1A and 2A
____ 25. Which of the following electron configurations is most likely to result in an element that is
relatively inactive?
a. a half-filled energy sublevel
b. a filled energy sublevel
c. one empty and one filled energy sublevel
d. a filled highest occupied principal energy level
____ 26. Which subatomic particle plays the greatest part in determining the properties of an element?
a. proton
c. neutron
b. electron
d. none of the above
____ 27. Which of the following elements is a transition metal?
a. cesium
c. tellurium
b. copper
d. tin
____ 28. Which of the following groupings contains only representative elements?
a. Cu, Co, Cd
c. Al, Mg, Li
b. Ni, Fe, Zn
d. Hg, Cr, Ag
____ 29. Which of the following is true about the electron configurations of the representative elements?
a. The highest occupied s and p sublevels are completely filled.
b. The highest occupied s and p sublevels are partially filled.
c. The electrons with the highest energy are in a d sublevel.
d. The electrons with the highest energy are in an f sublevel.
____ 30. What are the Group 1A and Group 7A elements examples of?
a. representative elements
c. noble gases
b. transition elements
d. nonmetallic elements
____ 31. Of the elements Fe, Hg, U, and Te, which is a representative element?
____ 32.
____ 33.
____ 34.
____ 35.
____ 36.
____ 37.
____ 38.
____ 39.
____ 40.
____ 41.
____ 42.
a. Fe
c. U
b. Hg
d. Te
How does atomic radius change from top to bottom in a group in the periodic table?
a. It tends to decrease.
c. It first increases, then decreases.
b. It tends to increase.
d. It first decreases, then increases.
How does atomic radius change from left to right across a period in the periodic table?
a. It tends to decrease.
c. It first increases, then decreases.
b. It tends to increase.
d. It first decreases, then increases.
What causes the shielding effect to remain constant across a period?
a. Electrons are added to the same principal energy level.
b. Electrons are added to different principal energy levels.
c. The charge on the nucleus is constant.
d. The atomic radius increases.
Atomic size generally ____.
a. increases as you move from left to right across a period
b. decreases as you move from top to bottom within a group
c. remains constant within a period
d. decreases as you move from left to right across a period
What element in the second period has the largest atomic radius?
a. carbon
c. potassium
b. lithium
d. neon
Which of the following factors contributes to the increase in atomic size within a group in the
periodic table as the atomic number increases?
a. more shielding of the electrons by the highest occupied energy level
b. an increase in size of the nucleus
c. an increase in number of protons
d. fewer electrons in the highest occupied energy level
Which of the following elements has the smallest atomic radius?
a. sulfur
c. selenium
b. chlorine
d. bromine
What is the charge of a cation?
a. a positive charge
b. no charge
c. a negative charge
d. The charge depends on the size of the nucleus.
Which of the following statements is true about ions?
a. Cations form when an atom gains electrons.
b. Cations form when an atom loses electrons.
c. Anions form when an atom gains protons.
d. Anions form when an atom loses protons.
The metals in Groups 1A, 2A, and 3A ____.
a. gain electrons when they form ions
c. all have ions with a 1 charge
b. all form ions with a negative charge
d. lose electrons when they form ions
Which of the following statements is NOT true about ions?
a. Cations are positively charged ions.
b. Anions are common among nonmetals.
c. Charges for ions are written as numbers followed by a plus or minus sign.
d. When a cation forms, more electrons are transferred to it.
____ 43. Why is the second ionization energy greater than the first ionization energy?
a. It is more difficult to remove a second electron from an atom.
b. The size of atoms increases down a group.
c. The size of anions decreases across a period.
d. The nuclear attraction from protons in the nucleus decreases.
____ 44. In which of the following sets are the charges given correctly for all the ions?
a. Na , Mg , Al
c. Rb , Ba , P
b. K , Sr , O
d. N , O , F
____ 45. In which of the following groups of ions are the charges all shown correctly?
a. Li , O , S
c. K , F , Mg
b. Ca , Al , Br
d. Na , I , Rb
____ 46. What is the element with the lowest electronegativity value?
a. cesium
c. calcium
b. helium
d. fluorine
____ 47. What is the element with the highest electronegativity value?
a. cesium
c. calcium
b. helium
d. fluorine
____ 48. Which of the following elements has the smallest ionic radius?
a. Li
c. O
b. K
d. S
____ 49. What is the energy required to remove an electron from an atom in the gaseous state called?
a. nuclear energy
c. shielding energy
b. ionization energy
d. electronegative energy
____ 50. For Group 2A metals, which electron is the most difficult to remove?
a. the first
b. the second
c. the third
d. All the electrons are equally difficult to remove.
____ 51. Which of the following factors contributes to the decrease in ionization energy within a group in
the periodic table as the atomic number increases?
a. increase in atomic size
b. increase in size of the nucleus
c. increase in number of protons
d. fewer electrons in the highest occupied energy level
____ 52. Which of the following elements has the smallest first ionization energy?
a. sodium
c. potassium
b. calcium
d. magnesium
____ 53. Which of the following elements has the lowest electronegativity?
a. lithium
c. bromine
b. carbon
d. fluorine
____ 54. Which statement is true about electronegativity?
a. Electronegativity is the ability of an anion to attract another anion.
b. Electronegativity generally increases as you move from top to bottom within a group.
c. Electronegativity generally is higher for metals than for nonmetals.
d. Electronegativity generally increases from left to right across a period.
____ 55. Compared with the electronegativities of the elements on the left side of a period, the
electronegativities of the elements on the right side of the same period tend to be ____.
a. lower
c. the same
____ 56.
____ 57.
____ 58.
____ 59.
____ 60.
b. higher
d. unpredictable
Which of the following decreases with increasing atomic number in Group 2A?
a. shielding effect
c. ionization energy
b. ionic size
d. number of electrons
Which of the following statements correctly compares the relative size of an ion to its neutral
atom?
a. The radius of an anion is greater than the radius of its neutral atom.
b. The radius of an anion is identical to the radius of its neutral atom.
c. The radius of a cation is greater than the radius of its neutral atom.
d. The radius of a cation is identical to the radius of its neutral atom.
Which of the following factors contributes to the increase in ionization energy from left to right
across a period?
a. an increase in the shielding effect
b. an increase in the size of the nucleus
c. an increase in the number of protons
d. fewer electrons in the highest occupied energy level
As you move from left to right across the second period of the periodic table ____.
a. ionization energy increases
c. electronegativity decreases
b. atomic radii increase
d. atomic mass decreases
Of the following elements, which one has the smallest first ionization energy?
a. boron
c. aluminum
b. carbon
d. silicon
Essay
61. Describe the trends in the atomic size of elements within groups and across periods in the
periodic table. Provide examples.
62. Explain how ions form. Provide examples.
63. Describe the trends in first ionization energy within groups and across periods in the periodic
table. Provide examples.
64. Positive ions are smaller than the atoms from which they are formed, but negative ions are larger
than the atoms from which they are formed. Explain why this is so.
65. Describe the trends in electronegativity within groups and across periods in the periodic table.
Provide examples.