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Transcript

Electric Currents The Electric Battery Electric Cell Electric Current When a continuous conducting path is connected between the terminals of a battery, we have an electric circuit. When such a circuit is formed, charge can flow through the wires of the circuit, from one terminal of the battery to the other. A flow of charge such as this is called as electric current. Q I t Units of Current 1 Ampere (A) = 1 C /1 s Conceptual Example: How to Connect a Battery. What’s wrong with each of circuits shown below? Conventional Current When we speak of the current flowing in a circuit, we mean the direction positive charge would flow. Important: Current is not a vector, it’s a scalar!!!! Important : In any single circuit, the current at any instant is the same at one point as at any other point!!! This follows from the conservation of electric charge. Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Resistors I~V Definition of Resistance I=V/R Ohm’s Law The current through a metal conductor is proportional to the applied voltage. Resistivity L R A Conceptual Example: Stretching Changes Resistance A wire of resistance R is stretched uniformly until it is twice its original length. What happens to its resistance? Effect of Temperature T 0 (1 (T T0 )) – temperature coefficient of resistivity is positive for metals and negative for semiconductors. Superconductivity 1. When you stack three flashlight batteries in the same direction, you get a voltage of 3x1 ½ volts = 4 ½ volts. What voltage do you get if one of the batteries is turned to face in the opposite direction? 2. What is the difference between a bulb burning out and removing the bulb from its socket? 3. If the resistance connected to a battery is cut in half, what happens to the current through the battery?