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ADOLESCENCE ADOLESCENCE (PUBERTY TO 18 years) Physical Social Cognitive 2nd biggest growth spurt Primary/secondary sex characteristics Athletic skills honed Little illness Peers more important Formal operations– than parents reason fully like an adult Identity vs. Role Confusion Adolescent Egocentrism Intense Emotions Romantic relations important Low Self-esteem Social Development • Erickson - Identity vs. Role Confusion Task = WHO AM I? integrating many roles (child, sibling, student, athlete, worker) into a self-image • Other Social Issues -Adolescent Depression (10X) -Risky Behavior / Suicide / Low Self-Esteem -Romantic Relationships more intense -Start to break away from family -Storms, Stress, Happy Freud – Sexual Development • Genital Stage - strong sexual interest in the opposite sex • If the other stages have been completed successfully, the individual should now be well-balanced, warm, and caring Jean Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage Characteristics of the formal operations stage: •Ability to reason in abstract ways •Prior to this level the world was seen in concrete terms/begin to consider possible outcomes and consequences of actions. •Personal mortality is becoming more “real” Adolescent Egocentrism belief by teenagers that they are special & unique Imaginary Audience: heightened self-consciousness. Adolescents believe that others, especially peers, are watching them, thinking about them, and interested in all their thoughts and behaviors. Personal Fable: your problems are worse, no one can understand what you go through, no one has ever felt as you do Hypocrisy: ok for you, not for others Pseudostupidity: oversimplified logic, tend to see moral issues in black and white without taking into account the complexities that might exist KOHLBERG’S THEORY PRE-CONVENTIONAL LEVEL Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment Make moral decisions based on avoidance of punishment Stage 2: Individualism Make moral decisions based on individual needs (common in young children, adults also can be stuck here) CONVENTIONAL LEVEL Stage 3: Relationships and Conformity -Longing to please or impress others -“Right” is being considerate Stage 4: Social System and Conscience Maintenance - Individual sees value in rules, not simply because they are afraid of them. -Importance of and need for laws in maintaining social order POST-CONVENTIONAL LEVEL Stage 5: Social Contracts - When people agree to something because they think it is best for everyone involved Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principles - Concepts like justice and honor are guidelines for right and wrong - Faith and religion Scenario 1 • You are at a store where you frequently shop and you see someone shoplifting. What do you do? Scenario 2 • You are at the grocery store and it is particularly busy. In a hurry, the cashier accidentally gives you a $20 bill instead of a $5 bill for your change. You realize the mistake immediately, but the cashier is clearly unaware of what they have done. What do you do? Scenario 3 You are running late on a foggy morning. You decide to take a short cut. The route takes you on a road right by a school. You are fairly sure that the school has been called off due to the fog, therefore there will be none of the usual school population and traffic. Nevertheless, the speed limit is 20 mph. Do you speed or follow the speed limit? Scenario 4 FENDER BENDER • Imagine you got into a “fender bender” but there was no damage to your car or the other car. Would you tell your parents? Scenario 5 You have a car that seats two people. Your girl/boyfriend, best friend, and an old lady are standing outside in the rain. You can only fit one other person in the car. Who do you take?