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Transcript
Words to Know
government - a political system for exercising authority.
aristocracy – a government in which power is in the
hands of a hereditary ruling class.
citizen – a native of a state or nation with certain rights
and privileges.
direct democracy – a government controlled by its
citizens either directly or through representatives.
republic – a form of government where power is in the
hands of representatives elected by the people.
senate – in ancient Rome, the supreme governing body.
Background Info on Greece
•
•
•
•
•
The terrain of Greece is mountainous and
rocky.
It is made up of many small islands
As a result the Greeks became good
sailors and traders, they met many
different people and shared ideas.
City-States (or small localized gov’ts)
developed as a result of people living on
the islands
B/C there weren’t many resources on the
islands, many city-states began to
expand overseas often through warfare.
The World
Arctic
Ocean
Arctic
Ocean
Pacific
Ocean
SOUTH
POLE
Atlantic
Ocean
Arctic
Ocean
Indian
Ocean
SOUTH
POLE
Pacific
Ocean
City-States
•
•
•
•
•
•
Were made up of a city and its
surrounding lands.
B/C they were small, Citizens took
pride in their city-states.
At first they were ruled by a king
with total power. This is called a
Monarchy.
Power eventually shifted to land
owners who wanted more say in
their gov’t.
As the city grew bigger a middle
class developed and also wanted
a say in gov’t.
Democracy will soon be born.
The City-State of Athens
• Athens is given credit as
being the first city-state to
practice democracy
• Democracy = rule by the
people.
• It happened b/c middleclass merchants wanted
a say in the way they
were ruled!!! Makes
sense right?
Question:
How does the past influence the present?
Democracy is from the Greek words “demos”
meaning people and “kratos” meaning rule or
authority
Government - a political system for exercising
authority.
Democracy - a government BY the people.
Rise of Democratic Ideas
In Greece and Rome
Mediterranean Sea
Atlantic
Ocean
Pacific
Ocean
Pacific
Ocean
Indian
Ocean
Romans
509 B.C.
Greeks
594 B.C.
Direct Democracy - form of
government where citizens rule
directly by voting on laws, & other
matters affecting the city-state.
Executive Branch
President
White House
Legislative Branch
Senators &
Representatives
Capital Building
Judicial Branch
Justices
Supreme Court
Separation of Powers –the assignment of executive,
legislative, & judicial powers to different groups of officials in
a government.
(Like the U.S. Government, today)
Athenian Rulers and their Reforms
Solon
(630 – 560 B.C.) increased citizens’ participation in
government but it was still a limited democracy.
594 B.C., outlawed slavery based on debt and cancelled
farmers’ debts, averting a revolution
established four classes of citizenship based on wealth
instead of heredity.
also created a new Council of Four Hundred to prepare
business for the already existing Council
a fairer code of laws
the right of citizens to bring charges against wrongdoers.
508 B.C. Cleisthenes' reforms
was felt immediately,
revolutionizing all aspects of
Athenian life.
Everyone was really happy !
* He wanted to break up the power of the nobles.
* His laws allowed all citizens to submit laws for debate and
passage.
* He also created the Council of Five Hundred which
counseled the assembly.
Athens, Greece – The Parthenon
Atop the Acropolis
Aristotle
Plato
Socrates
Greek Philosophers (Thinkers)
They did not rely on superstition or tradition
but used reason and intelligence (logic) to
discover predictable patterns they called
natural laws.
NATURAL LAWS
Greek Philosophers based their
philosophy on these natural laws:
1. The universe (land, sky, sea) is put
together in an orderly way and is
subject to absolute & unchanging laws.
2. People can understand these laws
through logic and reason .
338 B.C.
The end of Democracy
in Greece and…..……
The beginning of a
foreign Monarchy.
*Direct democracy
*Paying jurors so more people can
participate
in
government
Greeks
*3 branches of government
*Written Legal Code
*Natural law
The lands of the Roman
Empire, who allowed conquered
people the right of equal
treatment under the law.
Invading Roman Army
Romans, welcoming their emperor.
•All citizens had the right to equal treatment
under the law.
•A person was considered innocent until proven
guilty.
•The burden of proof rested with the accuser
rather than the accused person.
•Any law that seemed unreasonable or grossly
unfair could be set aside.
The
Roman
Republic
Roman aristocrats
overthrew the harsh
king & set up the new
government:
the Republic
The Romans were the
first to give us
Representative
Democracy with their
senators.
Roman Senate
Roman Forum
*Representative democracy
Romans *the Individual is a citizen of the State not
just a subject to a ruler.
*Written Legal Code
*3 branches of government
*All citizens had the right to :
equal treatment under the law
considered innocent until proven guilty
burden of proof rested with the accuser
*Any law that seemed unreasonable or
grossly unfair could be set aside.