Words to Know government - a political system for exercising authority. aristocracy – a government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class. citizen – a native of a state or nation with certain rights and privileges. direct democracy – a government controlled by its citizens either directly or through representatives. republic – a form of government where power is in the hands of representatives elected by the people. senate – in ancient Rome, the supreme governing body. Background Info on Greece • • • • • The terrain of Greece is mountainous and rocky. It is made up of many small islands As a result the Greeks became good sailors and traders, they met many different people and shared ideas. City-States (or small localized gov’ts) developed as a result of people living on the islands B/C there weren’t many resources on the islands, many city-states began to expand overseas often through warfare. The World Arctic Ocean Arctic Ocean Pacific Ocean SOUTH POLE Atlantic Ocean Arctic Ocean Indian Ocean SOUTH POLE Pacific Ocean City-States • • • • • • Were made up of a city and its surrounding lands. B/C they were small, Citizens took pride in their city-states. At first they were ruled by a king with total power. This is called a Monarchy. Power eventually shifted to land owners who wanted more say in their gov’t. As the city grew bigger a middle class developed and also wanted a say in gov’t. Democracy will soon be born. The City-State of Athens • Athens is given credit as being the first city-state to practice democracy • Democracy = rule by the people. • It happened b/c middleclass merchants wanted a say in the way they were ruled!!! Makes sense right? Question: How does the past influence the present? Democracy is from the Greek words “demos” meaning people and “kratos” meaning rule or authority Government - a political system for exercising authority. Democracy - a government BY the people. Rise of Democratic Ideas In Greece and Rome Mediterranean Sea Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean Romans 509 B.C. Greeks 594 B.C. Direct Democracy - form of government where citizens rule directly by voting on laws, & other matters affecting the city-state. Executive Branch President White House Legislative Branch Senators & Representatives Capital Building Judicial Branch Justices Supreme Court Separation of Powers –the assignment of executive, legislative, & judicial powers to different groups of officials in a government. (Like the U.S. Government, today) Athenian Rulers and their Reforms Solon (630 – 560 B.C.) increased citizens’ participation in government but it was still a limited democracy. 594 B.C., outlawed slavery based on debt and cancelled farmers’ debts, averting a revolution established four classes of citizenship based on wealth instead of heredity. also created a new Council of Four Hundred to prepare business for the already existing Council a fairer code of laws the right of citizens to bring charges against wrongdoers. 508 B.C. Cleisthenes' reforms was felt immediately, revolutionizing all aspects of Athenian life. Everyone was really happy ! * He wanted to break up the power of the nobles. * His laws allowed all citizens to submit laws for debate and passage. * He also created the Council of Five Hundred which counseled the assembly. Athens, Greece – The Parthenon Atop the Acropolis Aristotle Plato Socrates Greek Philosophers (Thinkers) They did not rely on superstition or tradition but used reason and intelligence (logic) to discover predictable patterns they called natural laws. NATURAL LAWS Greek Philosophers based their philosophy on these natural laws: 1. The universe (land, sky, sea) is put together in an orderly way and is subject to absolute & unchanging laws. 2. People can understand these laws through logic and reason . 338 B.C. The end of Democracy in Greece and…..…… The beginning of a foreign Monarchy. *Direct democracy *Paying jurors so more people can participate in government Greeks *3 branches of government *Written Legal Code *Natural law The lands of the Roman Empire, who allowed conquered people the right of equal treatment under the law. Invading Roman Army Romans, welcoming their emperor. •All citizens had the right to equal treatment under the law. •A person was considered innocent until proven guilty. •The burden of proof rested with the accuser rather than the accused person. •Any law that seemed unreasonable or grossly unfair could be set aside. The Roman Republic Roman aristocrats overthrew the harsh king & set up the new government: the Republic The Romans were the first to give us Representative Democracy with their senators. Roman Senate Roman Forum *Representative democracy Romans *the Individual is a citizen of the State not just a subject to a ruler. *Written Legal Code *3 branches of government *All citizens had the right to : equal treatment under the law considered innocent until proven guilty burden of proof rested with the accuser *Any law that seemed unreasonable or grossly unfair could be set aside.