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The Myceneans Mainland Greece (2000-1100 BC) Occupied the City of Mycenea Came from Russia about 2000BC Traded with the Minoans 1450 BC invaded Crete Ruled for 50 years in Crete Powerful during 1500-1400BC Integrated Minoan artistic elements First Greek speaking people (2000 - 1100 BC) Class and Political Structure Wanax = King Political and economic power Religion Military scribes Detailed records of the king's possessions, taxes, and other inventories The People Comparing/Contrasting Societies Minoans king matrilineal theocratic harmony King was not different than its citizens Art was about everyday life Myceneans King = called wanax warrior/religious aristocracy & subjects king was seen as an all powerful individual art was about warfare and hunting Cities Created 1. 2. 3. 4. After taking Crete, expanded to form cities in Athens, Thebes, Tiryns, and Pylos. Fine citadels in heavily fortified city walls Land divided into estates; farmed by tenants or slaves landowners gave wanax horses, chariots, weapons, wheat, livestock, etc. in exchange for protection Spread of Influence 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Fall of Minoans were allowed avenues of trade unopened to them before. Trade expanded to Cyprus, Egypt, and Asia Minor. Traded goods included perfumed oils, olive oil, wine, art, ivory, plaques, pottery, bronze objects, gold, copper, tin, spices, elephant tusks, and dye. Lots of gold and bronze work, writing, shipbuilding, fashion Expanded to form cities in Athens, Thebes, Tiryns, and Pylos. Characteristics of Myceneans 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Liked to hunt. Women hunted in chariots along with men. Violent; mainly warriors. They had bronze armor, metal shields, spears, and swords. Since they were on the mainland, they were under the constant threat of invasion. Sale of olive oil made them rich, because it was in high demand. Olives were used for cooking, lamp fuel, and body rubs. Religion 1. Polytheistic, belief in many gods. 2. Main goddess - Mother Earth who made plants grow and brought children into the world. 3. Built shrines to her on hilltops. 4. Believed hills led to the heavens, and caves led to the underworld. 5. On the back wall of the shrine were sacred horns made of clay. a. b. 6. Certain things were sacred such as the lily and snakes. a. b. 7. The hole between the horns held a double-headed ax. People left offerings of hair, fruit, flowers, jewels, and gold. Most people had snakes in their houses. Since snakes came out of caves, the people thought they were spirits of the underworld and would protect the house. The double axe stood for the power of Mother Earth and the authority of the king. Down Fall 1. 2. Within 1300 and 1000 BC Mycenea fell by its own hands. a. Myceneans Fall from power took place as a result of internecine wars between its own kingdoms b. Trojan War c. Evidenced in works as Homer's The Illiad 3. Ancient Greece went through what is commonly known as the Greek Dark Ages. War With Troy 1. 1200 BC. Paris, the son of a Trojan King, fell in love with Helen, the wife of a Mycenean King. 2. Paris took her. 3. The Myceneans sent 1000 ships to get her back, but couldn't get inside the fortress. 4. War went on for ten years. 5. The Myceneans built a big wooden horse, put their best soldiers inside, and the rest sailed away as though they were quitting. 6. The Trojans thought they had won, and brought the horse inside. 7. At night, the Myceneans jumped out, opened the gate, let the Mycenean soldiers in (who had sailed back). 8. Killed everyone except those who escaped (became the root of the Rome Empire). The Greek Dark Ages 1. Iron Age Dorians invaded the Greek peninsula from the north (estimated time 1200BC to 1100BC). 2. Atop the invasion, civil war also entered mainland Greece, directly following the Dorian invasion. 3. The Dark Ages lasted from 1100 BC until 800 BC a. The culture of Greece dwindled. b. Gradual decline of urbanized culture on the Greek mainland. c. Mycenean culture were destroyed d. Writing was not practiced. e. Trade with Asia Minor, the Middle East, and Egypt stopped entirely. f. Artistic elements of the time portray simple geometrical designs and patterns. 4. During the Dorian invasions entire villages were abandoned, and migrations occurred toward the islands of the Aegean & Asia Minor. 5. Dorian rule in many cities and villages was of two types. a. Dorians entering a city and assimilating themselves into it. b. The second type, as in the case of Sparta and Argos, created an upper caste which consisted exclusively of themselves, leaving the lower caste entirely made of native citizens, a life of serfdom.