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Transcript
The Myceneans
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Mainland Greece (2000-1100 BC)
Occupied the City of Mycenea
Came from Russia about 2000BC
Traded with the Minoans
1450 BC invaded Crete
Ruled for 50 years in Crete
Powerful during 1500-1400BC
Integrated Minoan artistic
elements
First Greek speaking people
(2000 - 1100 BC)
Class and Political Structure
Wanax = King
Political and economic power
Religion
Military
scribes
Detailed records of the king's
possessions, taxes, and other
inventories
The People
Comparing/Contrasting Societies
Minoans
king
matrilineal
theocratic harmony
King was not
different than its
citizens
Art was about
everyday life
Myceneans
King = called wanax
warrior/religious
aristocracy & subjects
king was seen as an all
powerful individual
art was about warfare
and hunting
Cities Created
1.
2.
3.
4.
After taking Crete, expanded to form cities in
Athens, Thebes, Tiryns, and Pylos.
Fine citadels in heavily fortified city walls
Land divided into estates; farmed by tenants or
slaves
landowners gave wanax horses, chariots,
weapons, wheat, livestock, etc. in exchange for
protection
Spread of Influence
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Fall of Minoans were allowed avenues of
trade unopened to them before.
Trade expanded to Cyprus, Egypt, and
Asia Minor.
Traded goods included perfumed oils,
olive oil, wine, art, ivory, plaques,
pottery, bronze objects, gold, copper, tin,
spices, elephant tusks, and dye.
Lots of gold and bronze work, writing,
shipbuilding, fashion
Expanded to form cities in Athens,
Thebes, Tiryns, and Pylos.
Characteristics of Myceneans
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Liked to hunt.
Women hunted in chariots along with men.
Violent; mainly warriors.
They had bronze armor, metal shields, spears, and swords.
Since they were on the mainland, they were under the constant
threat of invasion.
Sale of olive oil made them rich, because it was in high
demand. Olives were used for cooking, lamp fuel, and body
rubs.
Religion
1. Polytheistic, belief in many gods.
2.
Main goddess - Mother Earth who made plants grow and
brought children into the world.
3.
Built shrines to her on hilltops.
4.
Believed hills led to the heavens, and caves led to the
underworld.
5.
On the back wall of the shrine were sacred horns made of
clay.
a.
b.
6.
Certain things were sacred such as the lily and snakes.
a.
b.
7.
The hole between the horns held a double-headed ax.
People left offerings of hair, fruit, flowers, jewels, and gold.
Most people had snakes in their houses.
Since snakes came out of caves, the people thought they were
spirits of the underworld and would protect the house.
The double axe stood for the power of Mother Earth and
the authority of the king.
Down Fall
1.
2.
Within 1300 and 1000 BC
Mycenea fell by its own hands.
a. Myceneans Fall from power took place as a
result of internecine wars between its own
kingdoms
b. Trojan War
c. Evidenced in works as Homer's The Illiad
3.
Ancient Greece went through what is
commonly known as the Greek Dark
Ages.
War With Troy
1.
1200 BC. Paris, the son of a Trojan King, fell in love with
Helen, the wife of a Mycenean King.
2.
Paris took her.
3.
The Myceneans sent 1000 ships to get her back, but
couldn't get inside the fortress.
4.
War went on for ten years.
5.
The Myceneans built a big wooden horse, put their best
soldiers inside, and the rest sailed away as though they
were quitting.
6.
The Trojans thought they had won, and brought the horse
inside.
7.
At night, the Myceneans jumped out, opened the gate, let
the Mycenean soldiers in (who had sailed back).
8.
Killed everyone except those who escaped (became the
root of the Rome Empire).
The Greek Dark Ages
1.
Iron Age Dorians invaded the Greek peninsula from the north
(estimated time 1200BC to 1100BC).
2.
Atop the invasion, civil war also entered mainland Greece, directly
following the Dorian invasion.
3.
The Dark Ages lasted from 1100 BC until 800 BC
a.
The culture of Greece dwindled.
b.
Gradual decline of urbanized culture on the Greek mainland.
c.
Mycenean culture were destroyed
d.
Writing was not practiced.
e.
Trade with Asia Minor, the Middle East, and Egypt stopped
entirely.
f.
Artistic elements of the time portray simple geometrical designs
and patterns.
4.
During the Dorian invasions entire villages were abandoned, and
migrations occurred toward the islands of the Aegean & Asia Minor.
5.
Dorian rule in many cities and villages was of two types.
a.
Dorians entering a city and assimilating themselves into it.
b.
The second type, as in the case of Sparta and Argos, created an
upper caste which consisted exclusively of themselves, leaving
the lower caste entirely made of native citizens, a life of
serfdom.