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Acting Humanly: The Turing test
Turing (1950) “Computing machinery and intelligence”:
Can machine’s think? or Can machines behave intelligently?
Operational test for intelligent behavior: the Imitation Game
Predicted that by the year 2000, a machine would have a 30% chance of fooling a lay
person for 5 minutes
Anticipated all major arguments against AI in the following 50 years
Suggested major components of AI: knowledge, reasoning, language, understanding,
Problem: Turing test is not reproducible, constructive, or amenable to mathematical
analysis. Intelligence not determinable by surface behavior alone. The test is not
sufficient since the behaviors under adjudication are too limited. As a sufficient
condition for intelligence, the test is so difficult as to be uninteresting.
Consciousness - The Chinese Room Experiment
Thinking humanly: Cognitive Science
1960s “cognitive revolution”: information-processing psychology replaced prevailing
orthodoxy of behaviorism
Requires scientific theories of internal activities of the brain
- What level of abstraction? “knowledge” or “circuits”?
- How to validate theories? Requires
o Predicting and testing behavior of human subjects (top-down)
o Or direct identification from neurological data (bottom-up)
Both approaches (Cognitive Science and Cognitive Neuroscience) are now distinct from
Thinking rationally: Laws of Thought
Aristotle: what are correct arguments/thought processes?
Several greek schools developed various forms of logic:
Notation and rules of derivation for thoughts;
May or may not have proceeded to the idea of mechanization
1) Not all intelligent behavior is mediated by logical deliberation
2) What is the purpose of thinking? What thoughts should I have?
Acting Rationally
Rational behavior: doing the right thing
The right thing: = that which is expected to maximize goal achievement, given the
information available.
Doesn’t necessarily involve thinking (reflexes, blinking, breathing). But thinking should
be in the service of rational action.
Potted history of AI
McCulloch & Pitts: Boolean circuit model
of brain
1950 Turing's ``Computing Machinery and
Look, Ma, no hands!
1950s Early AI programs, including Samuel's
checkers program, Newell & Simon's Logic
Theorist, Gelernter's Geometry Engine
Dartmouth meeting: ``Artificial
Intelligence'' adopted
1965 Robinson's complete algorithm for logical
AI discovers computational complexity
Neural network research almost disappears
Early development of knowledge-based
Expert systems industry booms
Expert systems industry busts: ``AI
Neural networks return to popularity
1988-Resurgence of probabilistic and
decision-theoretic methods Rapid increase
in technical depth of mainstream AI
``Nouvelle AI'': ALife, GAs, soft
 Anything which can be viewed as perceiving
environment through sensors, etc. and then
acting in the environment
 Current hot buzz-word
 Looks like the basic computational box
Abstractly, an agent is a function from percept histories to actions:
f : P*  A
For any given class of environments and tasks, we seek the agent (or class of
agents) with the best (possible) performance (a rational agent).
Intelligent Agents
 Intelligent (rational) agent seeks to maximize
its performance measure for any given
sequence of percepts
 Look up table?
 Text uses intelligent agent approach to bring
all aspects of AI into one.
 What should an intelligent agent have?
An intelligent agent should have knowledge, infer, plan,
reason with uncertainty, learn, perceive, communicate,
Agent Types
 Reflex Agent - Actions based only on current
percepts (no state memory), condition-action
 Agents with Memory - keep track of internal
state, past actions (or their effects), and the
dynamically changing environment
 Goal-Based Agents - Actions driven by overall
goal, easy if one step, multi-action sequences
(subgoals) often supported by search and
planning mechanisms
 Utility-Based Agents - Best actions
- Multiple ways to reach goals
- Conflicting Goals
- Actions with uncertainty - which approach gives best chance of fulfilling
Environment Issues
 Accessibility - can agent detect all relevant
 Determinism - is next state completely
determined by current state plus the agent
action - if inaccessible, then may appear nondeterministic regardless
 Episodic - Is environment neatly divided into
independent episodes
 Static vs. Dynamic - Does environment remain
static in between agent actions
 Discrete vs. Continuous - Are there limited
distinct percept and action possibilities