Test Review Packet #5 Organisms Plant and Animal Cell Parts Nucleus - Controls cell activities, store genetic material Cytoplasm - Thick fluid where life processes occur Cell membrane - The “skin” of the cell which regulates what goes in and out of the cell Mitochondria - Where food is burned “respiration”. The power house Ribosome - Synthesis, where proteins are made Lysosomes - Digestion, digestive enzymes are stored there Vacuole - Where digestion occurs and excess fluid is stored Chloroplasts - Photosynthesis, glucose is produced in green plants Animal Cell Plant Cell Plant and Animal Cells Plants have a cell wall. Plants have chloroplasts gives shape and support to the cell Contain chlorophyll which helps them make their own food. Animal cells have centrioles help in cell division. Life Processes – Nutrition Plants – Green plants make food by photosynthesis. Glucose and oxygen are produced. Animals – get nutrients from eating plants and animals. Ingestion – Digestion – Elimination - Transport Water is necessary for life and transport Water helps move materials in an organism Helps produce food in plants Helps blood carry nutrients to cells and carries waste away from them. Respiration/Excretion Respiration is the release of energy from food. Animals, sugar + oxygen = energy + carbon dioxide + water Plants, energy + carbon dioxide + water = sugar + oxygen Excretion is the elimination of waste. Waste like carbon dioxide is carried by blood and filtered through exhaling, perspiration and urinating. Regulation/Reproduction Regulation is an organisms response to environment changes. Maintaining a constant internal environment is called homeostasis. Two types of reproduction Sexual and Asexual. Asexual Reproduction Involves only one parent. Offspring are identical to the parent. 3 types – binary fission, budding, and regeneration. Sexual Reproduction Two parents Offspring has traits of both parents. Female produces egg cell male produces sperm cell. When the two cells join, it is called fertilization. Growth Metamorphosis is the change in a creature as it grows into an adult. The organism grows and produces offspring. This is the life cycle.