Download Hindu - University of Mount Union

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Sri Vaishnavism wikipedia, lookup

Pratyabhijna wikipedia, lookup

Yoga Sutras of Patanjali wikipedia, lookup

Bhagavata Purana wikipedia, lookup

Women in Hinduism wikipedia, lookup

Yoga Yajnavalkya wikipedia, lookup

Neo-Vedanta wikipedia, lookup

Shaivism wikipedia, lookup

History of Shaktism wikipedia, lookup

Buddhism and Hinduism wikipedia, lookup

Devi wikipedia, lookup

Dayananda Saraswati wikipedia, lookup

Brahman wikipedia, lookup

Tamil mythology wikipedia, lookup

Hindu–Islamic relations wikipedia, lookup

Vedas wikipedia, lookup

Brahma Sutras wikipedia, lookup

History of Hinduism wikipedia, lookup

Vishishtadvaita wikipedia, lookup

Hindu deities wikipedia, lookup

Hindu views on evolution wikipedia, lookup

Hindu philosophy wikipedia, lookup

Om wikipedia, lookup

Hindu mythology wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Hinduism
Its origins
Hinduism
Is not one religion but is a family
of religions
Hinduism
development
• India and Hindu derived from
the same word--Indus.
• The Harappa cultured existed
in the area.
• Some argue that the
Dravidians lived in India
before the invasion of the
Aryans.
• Around 2000 B.C.E. The
Aryans entered India.
• However, recent scholarship
suggests that such an
invasion never occurred.
The Vedic Period
• Sacrifices to nature
gods
• Hereditary
priesthood
• Outdoor fire altars
• Memorized Vedic
chants
• Offering of food,
drink, animals
The Vedas
(knowledge or sacred lore)
• Sacred chants which
made up the sacred
literature of the early
inhabitants. They
were revealed to holy
men called rishis.
These poetic
compositions are
made up of history,
ethical precepts, moral
laws, social traditions
and spiritual
philosophy.
The Four Texts of the Vedas
• 1. Rig Veda - hymn of knowledge -- is a
collection of more than a thousand
prayers hymn- chants (mantras) to the
Aryan Gods.
Origin of the Rig-Veda Gods
• Purusha is described as the All from
which parts of the universe came. Gods
come from Purusha
The Gods of the Rig-Veda
• Agni
– it is the fire used in the
sacrifice.
• Indra,
– he slays demons but
preserves humans.
More Gods
• Soma
– is a "deified plant" and
is the most important
god of the Rig-Veda.
• Mitra
– personifies an
agreement or
contract. People use
the name as a way
of validating an
agreement.
More Gods
• Varuna
– is also an important deity in the Rig-Veda
and is the protector of truth and "the main
force in the universe is Rita, which orders
all things and prevents Chaos.”
• 2. Yajur Veda - ceremonial knowledge -contains those things that are chanted
during sacrifice
• 4. Atharva Veda - knowledge
• 3. Sama Veda from [the teacher] Artharva -- is
chant knowledge-- is
made up of practical prayers
a handbook of
and charms which protect
musical elaboration
adherents against snakes and
of Vedic chants
sickness
Vedas
Upanishads
• The four Vedas end with something even later
known as Upanishads, "which express
philosophical and religious ideas that arouse
in introspective and meditative traditions."
• The Upanishads are a collection of about 100
written works that record insights into external
and internal reality. They are written in
dialogue form and appear as both prose and
poet forms.
Hinduism
• Belief in Brahman as the ultimate
reality is what characterizes the
adherents of this religion. The Brahman
is omnipotent and impersonal. Attaining
unity with the Brahman is a key
characteristic. One wants the Atman
(soul) to be one with Brahman.
Goals
What do you want to do?
Goals in Life
• In Hinduism there are four goals in
living:
– kama
– artha
– dharma
– moksha
Kama
It is the life of
pleasures. It
can be the
pursuit of
pleasure in
literature or in
love making
(Kamasutra)
Artha
• It is pursuing
“politics or the
materialism of
commercial
competition.”
Dharma
• It is the goal for
those who want to
fulfill their duties
with regard to their
caste.
Moksha
• It is for those who
have grown tired of
the other pursuits
and want to be
released from the
wheel of life.
The Stages in Life
Where are you?
Four Stages of Life
•
For the Hindu there are four stages in life.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Brahmacarya or student.
Gârhastya or householder.
Vânaprastya or Renouncer or forest dweller.
Sannyâsa or seeker.
Brahmacarya
Student
• This stage is
between 8 and 12
but no more than
24. He studies the
Vedas and he has a
sacred cord which
shows that he is a
member of one of
the 3 highest castes.
Gârhastya
Householder
• At this stage a person is
around 25 and usually
married “he lives as close to
the ideals as he can.” He
tries to follow the rituals as
prescribed for householders
as closely as he can and he
tries not to harm other
creatures. “Above all he
tries to observe duties in
marriage, in his occupation
and in raising children.”
• He is a spiritual man who
observes his duties.
Vânaprastya
Renouncer
• This person renounces
everything including wife
and go to the forest; His
wife can follow him if he
desires. He leaves the
village and goes to live in
the wilderness. He offers
“the five great sacrifices
with various sorts of pure
food or hermits . . .”
Sannyâsa
Seeker
• This person seeks
release (Samadhi)
of the soul so that it
can unite with
Brahman. This can
be done through
raya yoga where the
body is trained to
serve the soul.
Salvation
• In Hindu tradition one desires to be
liberated from the cycle of birth and
death; samsara.
Paths to Salvation
• 1. The way of action (karma yoga)
• 2. The way of knowledge (jnana yoga)
• 3. The way of devotion (bhakti yoga)
• 4. The way of meditation (raja yoga)
Karma Yoga
• 1. karma yoga - the way of action
is the path of unselfish action.
One does one’s duty but not for
fear of punishment or hope of
reward. The right action is done
not for praise or blame. One
does an act because it is one’s
duty dharma not because other
people will praise you for it.
Duties for men and women are
prescribed. One performs the
appropriate rituals every day. A
person’s whole day is filled with
actions explained in the Vedas.
Jnana Yoga
• jnana yoga - the way of
knowledge is the path of
scriptural knowledge.
• A person’s ignorance keeps
one in illusion. If the
bondage of illusion can be
broken one can experience
liberation. One attempts to
identify with the universal
soul instead transient
material things or the world.
“Salvation lies in a person’s
recognizing that his or her
identity is ground not in the
world but in BrahmanAtman.” One will attach
oneself to a guru—someone
who is very knowledgeable
Bhakti Yoga
• Bhakti Yoga - the way of
devotion. It is the path
of devotion and it is
emphasized in the
Bhagavad Gita. One
serves a god
wholeheartedly with no
reservations. One
embraces god in love.
One commits oneself to
one of the Hindu gods.
Raja Yoga
• Raja Yoga - the Way
of Physical
Discipline. One
wants “to train the
physical body so
that the soul can be
free.” There are 8
steps to training the
body.
The Eight Steps of Raja Yoga
• 1. Restraint - no killing,
lying, stealing,
unchastity, coveting
• 2. Spiritual Discipline calm, austerity, study,
devotion, purity
• 3. Posture (lotus best)
• 4. Controlled breathing
• 5. Withdrawal of the
senses from all
sense-objects
• 6. Concentration
• 7. Meditation
• 8. Union with god
Key Terms
• The most important concepts in the
Upanishads, which are still in Hinduism
today, are Brahman, Atman, maya,
karma and moksha.
Brahman
• Brahman originally meant cosmic power
in the Vedic system. In the Upanishads
the word was expanded to mean “a
divine reality at the heart of things. To
know Brahman cannot be put in words.
Brahman is sat, reality itself; chit, pure
consciousness, and ananda, bliss.
Brahman is beyond time and space.
Relationship of the Gods
Brahman - Atman
Unity of Brahma
to Atman (soul)
Brahma
(creator)
Vishnu
(preserver)
aka Krishna
Shiva
(destroyer)
Hindu Deities
• The major gods.
• There are three major
gods, which are the
center of devotion
because they are
“interlinked with the
forces of creation,
preservation, and
destruction. The three
gods are Brahma,
Vishnu, and Shiva,
sometimes together
they are called the
Trimurti, which means
‘triple form.’”
•
Brahma
• Brahma is the creative
force that made the
universe. Brahma is
usually worshiped
collectively along with
Vishnu and Shiva than
alone. He is depicted
as “ancient, thoughtful
king, with four faces
that look in all four
directions and four
arms.”
Vishnu
• Vishnu is the force of
preservation in the
universe. He is thought
of light and warmth that
destroys darkness,
Vishnu grew in stature
until finally becoming a
major god of Hinduism.
He is associated with
loving-kindness and can
“appear on earth at
different times and
various physical forms
to help those in need.”
Krishna
• Krishna is another
incarnation of
Vishnu and may
have started as the
object of fertility
worship.
• Shiva is linked with
“destruction and is the
most complicated of the
gods.” Shiva is
expressed as
threatening and
benevolent, creator but
destroyer, exuberant
dancer but austere yogi.
Shiva’s “creative energy
is symbolized or
manifested, sometimes
more abstractly and
sometimes more
explicitly, in sexual
terms.
Shiva
Four Major Castes
• Some historians believe
that the Aryans were
responsible for the
caste system in India.
Four major caste
systems emerged.
–
–
–
–
Brahmins
Kshatriya
Vaisyas
Shudras
http://nisus.sfusd.edu/schwww/sch618/India/Class_Caste.html
Four Major Castes
• Brahmins - intellectual
and spiritual leaders,
priests - They perform
the Vedic rituals and
counsels. They are in
demands a cooks
because of the
association with fire and
sacrifice. Furthermore,
they can prepare food
for other castes as well
as their own.
• Kshatriya - warriornoble - has the role
of protecting society.
This is the traditional
caste of the
aristocracy.
http://nisus.sfusd.edu/schwww/sch618/India/Class_Caste.html
• Vaisyas – the
merchants, landowners,
moneylenders, and
sometimes artisans.
Males of the thee upper
castes receive a sacred
cord during a ceremony
in their youth and
afterward are called
twice-born.”
http://nisus.sfusd.edu/schwww/sch618/India/Class_Caste.html
• Shudras - the unskilled
laborers - do manual
labor and is expected to
serve the higher castes.
The origin probably
goes back the Aryan
subjection of native
people, who were
forced to do the work of
servants. The peasant
is called ‘once-born.’”
http://nisus.sfusd.edu/schwww/sch618/India/Class_Caste.html
Untouchables
• mlechcha - outcastes, untouchables are considered so low as to be outside
the caste system. Untouchables do the
dirtiest work–cleaning toilets, sweeping
streets, collecting animal carcasses,
and tanning animal hides.
Subcaste
There is subcaste system which
developed over the years from the
simple four caste and is quite
large. Although the caste system
is outlawed it is still practiced to
some extent.
Sources
• Slide 1 http://www.cnn.com/TRAVEL/DESTINATIONS/9704/india/images/india.
map.lg.jpg
• Slide 3 - http://www.indiatouristoffice.org/images/maps/india-map.gif
• Slide 4 - http://www.esonet.org/pinacoteca/veda/Dei/vedic-god-24.jpg
• Slide 5 – http://www.atributetohinduism.com/images/rishi_vedas.JPG
• Slide 6 http://trumpet.sdsu.edu/M345/Knowledge_Webs/7Indian_MusicY/veda
s.htm
• Slide 6 http://trumpet.sdsu.edu/M345/Knowledge_Webs/7Indian_MusicY/Rig_
Veda.gif
Sources
• Slide 7 http://www.mc.maricopa.edu/~kefir/hinduism/images/purusha.gif
• Slide 8 http://www.khosla.com/cityboiledbeans/1996aug07.htm;
http://www.rediff.com/weather/indra.html
• Slide 9 - http://webonautics.com/mythology/images/soma.jpg
• Slide 10 - http://webonautics.com/mythology/images/varuna.jpg
• Slide 12 - http://sanskrit.bhaarat.com/Dale/image/SamaVeda.gif;
http://www.svneumo.org/imagenes/ATHARVA-VEDA.jpg
• Slide 17 – http://www.gutenberg21.co.jp/images/kama.gif
• Slide 18 –
http://www.bendov.info/picpg/orissa/pics/market/mrkt70.jpg
• Slide 19 –
http://www.blessingsonthenet.com/publication/pics/book71.jpg
Sources
•
•
•
•
•
Slide 21 – http://www.jainworld.com/literature/story29i12.gif
Slide 23 – http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/hindu/2302.htm
Slide 24 – http://jagoi.tripod.com/personal.htm
Slide 25 – http://courses.smsu.edu/jel807f/kumbhmela.html
Slide 26 –
http://www.gosai.com/chaitanya/ashrama/tour/ashrama_102.html
• Slide 37 – http://www.friesian.com/gods.htm