The 5 Themes To Ask About A Culture Sumer/Mesopotamia Ancient Egypt Israelites By Rachel Boyd Sumer / Mesopotamia Location: Ur= 31°N 48°E Relative Location• In Between the Tigris and Euphrates river • Present day Iraq Region/Human Environment Interaction Physical Characteristics Euphrates and Tigris River, Plains, Plateaus, Persian Gulf, Marshes, Trees Natural Resources Euphrates, Tigris, Clay, Bronze, Copper, Stone, Tin Climate/Growing Season/Land use -They had heavy spring floods and very hot summers -The land was used for Farming Change to the Environment -To change, they built irrigation systems, canals, dams, and gates to help water crops and control flooding Economics / Movement • • • • • Goods/Trade Goods were made by hand and simple tools Some goods that were produced were jewelry, pottery, weapons/tools, instruments, fabric, and even board games Goods were traded in the local Market Place for other items needed The Mesopotamians did not have money, but they traded and kept records of the trades To transport goods they used the first wheel and sailboats Political Science/Government Rulers They were governed by a king. The first kings were strong Military leaders for the people needed more protection and they chose leaders who have accomplished many things, and were strong. The kings were then selected by the next male heir, except when another kingdom conquered their land. Some of their leaders include Hammurabi, Sargon, and Gilgamesh. Laws The laws they obeyed were Hammurabi’s laws or they would be punished Knowledge/Education/The Arts New Knowledge that developed: Wheel, a better calendar, advanced writing system, and an irrigation system, the plow. What can we learn about them from their culture, art, writing, ect… They had a stable economy They wasted no time on projects Some of Today’s laws are based on their laws Religion/Philosophy Belief about gods: • They worship over 3000 gods • Their belief is Polytheism- belief in many gods • They believed that their gods controlled everything • They believe that the meaning of life is to please the gods and worship them • Their beliefs affect their lives for they spent a big portion of their day worshiping them and their gods affect everything they do.Also they used their arts skills and sculpting skills not to show how good you are, but in honor of the gods Sociology They had many families in their country They had slaves who were often prisoners of war The Mesopotamians had 3 social classes that included: King, Government, Priests, & Wealthy People Farmers, Fishermen, & Artisans(Women Weavers) Slaves Their daily live consists of pleasing the gods, farmers tending crops and livestock, the women taking care of the family and the chores(unless wealthy), and some people traded at the Market Ancient Egypt Location: Cairo- 30°E 30°N Relative LocationNear the Mediterranean and Red Sea Above Sudan In Africa Region/Human Environmental Interaction Physical Characteristics Black silt, Nile River, desert land, cataracts, papyrus plants, marshlands, farm land, delta Natural Resources Gold, copper, granite, limestone, basalt, quartzite, cotton, linen, mud, Nile River, Papyrus Climate/Seasons Dry, arid and hot, very little rain The seasons are: Flood season, Planting season, Harvest season Adapting to the environment The Egyptians lived near the Nile and used it as a transportation system They wore heavy clothing to protect them from the sun Ecomonics/Movement Goods/Trade Goods were produced by hand and simple tools such as chisels. Some goods that were produced were jewelry, food, baskets, cloth, weapons, ect… Goods were transported by boat along the Nile, or by wheel. Goods were traded for other items that were of equal worth for they did not have money. Political Science/ Movement The people obeyed the Pharaoh and the gods and goddesses The Pharaoh had many advisors, but ended up making the final decision The Pharaoh made up many laws for the Egyptians to follow, or they would be punished The Pharaohs were chosen for they were usually the eldest son of the current reigning Pharaoh Knowledge/Education/The Arts Some new knowledge that they developed were: -First medical records-48 diseases/symptoms & cures -Advanced writing system- hieroglyphics -One of the most architecturally advanced civilizations-Tomb paintings, temples, pyramids, etc… We can learn that they are very religious, and all their art and sculptures and statues are made for their Pharaoh and gods and not for fame. The Egyptians were very eager into making it into the Underworld - shown in tomb paintings Religion and Philosophy They believe that they have many gods and goddesses (including their Pharaoh) that each have a special job They believe that the meaning of life is to please and worship the gods and to live a good life so they may make it into the afterlife. Their religion affects their lives for they must be careful and do only the things that are right so they may enter the afterlife. Ex: worshiping gods, doing good deeds, etc… Sociology There are many families in Egypt The Egyptians did have slaves that mainly worked for their Pharaoh or were used in battle The Egyptians had 8 classes: Pharaoh- who was thought of as a god Priests- they were only ones allowed in temples with the Pharaoh Royal family- wives, children, relatives… Officials- responsible for the taxes, royal store houses, and crops Artisans- carpenters, painters, jewelers, stone masons, and brick makers Farmers- most Egyptians were farmers, grew crop to supply food Slaves- served the pharaoh, fought as soldiers, and worked as servants Daily Lives- hunting, doing chores, worshiping their gods, obeying the pharaoh, and trading for items needed. Israelites Jerusalem- 32˚ N and 35˚E Relative Location-Near the Mediterranean Sea -beside Egypt -below Syria Region/Human Environmental Interaction Physical Characteristics Jordan River, Hills, Plains, Desert Natural Resources Grain, wheat, barley, fish Climate/Growing Season Hot with little rain Growing season was most of the year They used their natural resources for food and trade Economics/Movement Goods were either grown or manmade with simple tools Some goods were pottery, cloth, weapons, jewelry, crops The goods were exchanged at Trading Routes and Markets Instead of money they traded items they had for other items they needed They were transported by boat or animal Political Science/Government They were governed by kings The Kings were chosen some by skill and some by royal blood Some great Kings that ruled the Israelites were David, Saul, and Solomon The laws that the Israelites followed were the 10 Commandments Besides the kings, the Israelites followed God’s rules too Knowledge/Education/The Arts Some new knowledge they made were : Monotheistic religion (Judaism) The Torah Sacred Writings Temples That shows that they were very religious and wanted to please and love God Religion and Philosophy The Israelites believed in one God They believe the meaning of life is to please and worship God They believe that God is All-Knowing and present everywhere The Israelites made a promise to God that if they follow His laws and love Him, He would love and protect them Their belief affects their lives for they are careful about what they do or say so they do not upset God Sociology The Israelites live in groups such as the Family They did have slaves, but not many The Israelites thought of each other as equals Their daily lives consist of: -Work (whatever their jobs are) -Worship God -Mothers do chores and watch the children -They trade at a Marketplace when they need to Citations Ancient Egyptian Market. 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