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Transcript
Prentice Hall
EARTH SCIENCE
Tarbuck

Lutgens
Chapter
22
Origin of Modern
Astronomy
22.1 Early Astronomy
Ancient Greeks
 Astronomy is the science that studies the
universe. It includes the observation and
interpretation of celestial bodies and
phenomena.
 The Greeks used philosophical arguments
to explain natural phenomena.
 The Greeks also used some observational
data.
Astrolabe
Calculating Earth’s Circumference
Eratosthenes
22.1 Early Astronomy
Ancient Greeks
 Geocentric Model
• In the ancient Greeks’ geocentric model, the
moon, sun, and the known planets—Mercury,
Venus, Mars, and Jupiter—orbit Earth.
 Heliocentric Model
• In the heliocentric model, Earth and the other
planets orbit the sun.
Geocentric and Heliocentric Models
22.1 Early Astronomy
Ancient Greeks
 Ptolemaic System
• Ptolemy created a model of the universe that
accounted for the movement of the planets.
• Retrograde motion is the apparent westward
motion of the planets with respect to the stars.
Retrograde Motion
22.1 Early Astronomy
The Birth of Modern Astronomy
 Nicolaus Copernicus
• Copernicus concluded that Earth is a planet. He
proposed a model of the solar system with the
sun at the center. Known as his “Heliocentric
Theory”
22.1 Early Astronomy
The Birth of Modern Astronomy
 Tycho Brahe
• Tycho Brahe designed and built instruments to
measure the locations of the heavenly bodies.
Brahe’s observations, especially of Mars, were
far more precise than any made previously. His
famous assistant was Johannes Kepler.
22.1 Early Astronomy
The Birth of Modern Astronomy
 Johannes Kepler
• Kepler discovered three laws of planetary motion:
1. Orbits of the planets are elliptical.
2. Planets revolve around the sun at varying
speed.
3. There is a proportional relationship between
a planet’s orbital period and its distance to
the sun.
22.1 Early Astronomy
The Birth of Modern Astronomy
 Johannes Kepler
• An ellipse is an oval-shaped path.
• An astronomical unit (AU) is the average
distance between Earth and the sun; it is about
150 million kilometers.
Ellipse Simulator
http://www.windows2universe.org/physical_science
/physics/mechanics/orbit/orbit_shape_interactive
.html
http://astro.unl.edu/naap/pos/animations/kepler.swf
Planet Revolution
Ellipse Drawing
22.1 Early Astronomy
The Birth of Modern Astronomy
 Galileo Galilei
• Galileo’s most important contributions were his
descriptions of the behavior of moving objects.
• He developed his own telescope and made
important discoveries:
1. Four satellites, or moons, orbit Jupiter.
2. Planets are circular disks, not just points of light.
3. Venus has phases just like the moon.
4. The moon’s surface is not smooth.
5. The sun has sunspots, or dark regions.
The Solar System Model Evolves
Galileo
22.1 Early Astronomy
The Birth of Modern Astronomy
 Sir Isaac Newton
• Although others had theorized the existence of
gravitational force, Newton was the first to
formulate and test the law of universal
gravitation.
 Universal Gravitation
• Gravitational force decreases with distance.
• The greater the mass of an object, the greater is
its gravitational force.
Gravity’s Influence on Orbits
Isaac Newton
22.2 The Earth–Moon–Sun System
Motions of Earth
 The two main motions of Earth are rotation
and revolution. Precession is a third and
very slow motion of Earth’s axis.
Stonehenge, an Ancient Observatory
22.2 The Earth–Moon–Sun System
Motions of Earth
 Rotation
• Rotation is the turning, or spinning, of a body on
its axis.
• Two measurements for rotation:
1. Mean solar day is the time interval from one
noon to the next, about 24 hours.
2. Sidereal day is the time it takes for Earth to
make one complete rotation (360º) with
respect to a star other than the sun—23 hours,
56 minutes, 4 seconds.
Sidereal Day
22.2 The Earth–Moon–Sun System
Motions of Earth
 Revolution
• Revolution is the motion of a body, such as a
planet or moon, along a path around some point
in space.
• Perihelion is the time in January when Earth is
closest to the sun.
• Aphelion is the time in July when Earth is
farthest from the sun.
22.2 The Earth–Moon–Sun System
Motions of Earth
 Earth’s Axis and Seasons
• The plane of the ecliptic is an imaginary plane
that connects Earth’s orbit with the celestial
sphere.
• Because of the inclination of Earth’s axis to the
plane of the ecliptic, Earth has its yearly cycle of
seasons.
The Ecliptic
22.2 The Earth–Moon–Sun System
Motions of Earth
 Precession
• Precession traces out a cone over a period of
26,000 years.
 Earth–Sun Motion
• The solar system speeds in the direction of the
star Vega.
• The sun revolves around the galaxy.
• Earth is presently approaching one of its
nearest galactic neighbors, the Great Galaxy in
Andromeda.
Precession
22.2 The Earth–Moon–Sun System
Motions of the Earth–Moon System
 Perigee is the point at which the moon is
closest to Earth.
 Apogee is the point at which the moon is
farthest from Earth.
22.2 The Earth–Moon–Sun System
Motions of the Earth–Moon System
 Phases of the Moon
• The phases of the moon are the progression of
changes in the moon’s appearance during the
month.
• Lunar phases are a result of the motion of the
moon and the sunlight that is reflected from its
surface.
Phases of the Moon
22.2 The Earth–Moon–Sun System
Motions of the Earth–Moon System
 Lunar Motions
• The synodic month is based on the cycle of the
moon’s phases. It lasts 29 1/2 days.
• The sidereal month is the true period of the
moon’s revolution around Earth. It lasts 27 1/3
days.
22.2 The Earth–Moon–Sun System
Motions of the Earth–Moon System
 Lunar Motions
• The difference of two days between the synodic
and sidereal cycles is due to the Earth–moon
system also moving in an orbit around the sun.
• The moon’s period of rotation about its axis and
its revolution around Earth are the same, 27 1/3
days. It causes the same lunar hemisphere to
always face Earth.
Lunar Motions
22.2 The Earth–Moon–Sun System
Eclipses
 Solar eclipses occur when the moon
moves in a line directly between Earth and
the sun, casting a shadow on Earth.
 Lunar eclipses occur when the moon
passes through Earth’s shadow.
 During a new-moon or full-moon phase,
the moon’s orbit must cross the plane of
the ecliptic for an eclipse to take place.
Solar Eclipse
Lunar Eclipse
22.3 Earth’s Moon
The Lunar Surface
 Craters
• A crater is the depression at the summit of a
volcano or a depression produced by a
meteorite impact.
• Most craters were produced by the impact of
rapidly moving debris.
• Rays are any of a system of bright, elongated
streaks, sometimes associated with a crater on
the moon.
The Moon’s Surface
Mare Imbrium
(Sea of Rains)
Kepler
Crater
Copernicus
Crater
Mare Tranquillitatus
(Sea of Tranquility)
Formation of a Crater
22.3 Earth’s Moon
The Lunar Surface
 Highlands
• Most of the lunar surface is made up of densely
pitted, light-colored areas known as highlands.
 Maria
• Maria, ancient beds of basaltic lava, originated
when asteroids punctured the lunar surface,
letting magma bleed out.
• A rille is a long channel associated with lunar
maria. A rille looks similar to a valley or a trench.
22.3 Earth’s Moon
The Lunar Surface
 Regolith
• The lunar regolith is a thin, gray layer on the
surface of the moon, consisting of loosely
compacted, fragmented material believed to
have been formed by repeated impacts of
meteorites.
Major Topographic Features of the Moon
22.3 Earth’s Moon
Lunar History
 The most widely accepted model for the
origin of the moon is that when the solar
system was forming, a body the size of
Mars impacted Earth. The resulting debris
was ejected into space, began orbiting
around Earth, and eventually united to form
the moon.
Formation of Earth’s Moon