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Big Bang Theory
 An
effort to explain what happened at
the very beginning of our universe.
 According
to the Big Bang Theory, the
universe began about 15 billion years
The theorized beginning of the universe is
called the “singularity”.
It was about the size of a dime; all
particles of matter were contained in an
unimaginably dense object.
Atoms could not form at first because of
the extreme heat.
Formation of Elements
Within the first minute, 98% of all matter in the
universe was formed. It began cooling
The first particles formed were quarks (make up
protons and neutrons), electrons, photons,
First elements formed were hydrogen, helium
and deuterium (isotope of hydrogen).
Formation of Elements
Formation of heavier
elements were found in
Supernova’s occur when giant
stars (much bigger than our
sun) explode and immense
energy is released (equal to a
trillion hydrogen bombs
Formation of Elements
The 10 million degree Kelvin (equal to
17,999,500 F) temperatures were
adequate to create heavier elements
necessary for life (carbon, nitrogen,
oxygen, sulfur, and phosphorous).
For a very short period of time (10 –30 sec)
the universe doubled itself every 10 –34
Law of Gravity
This period of great expansion helped
establish the law of gravity.
All objects have a gravitational force. The
larger the object the greater the force (ex.
the earth vs. your pen.)
This theory also helps explain how the
force of gravity began to condense clumps
of matter into objects that would eventually
form stars and galaxies.
Big Bang Theory
This theory also helps
explain how the force of
gravity began to
condense clumps of
matter into objects that
would eventually form
stars and galaxies.
The Big Bang Theory Evidence
 Cosmic
Background Radiation moves
in front of our universe.
 When
viewing the sky with a radio
telescope, the sky is not black, but
has a faint glow (this is CBR)
The color differences are variations
in temperature.
Doppler Effect
 Describes
the change in wavelength
of light or sound that occurs when an
object moves toward or away form
Doppler Effect
 Astronomers
are only concerned with
the changes of light wavelengths, not
 It tells us whether an object is moving
towards or away from Earth
 Large Doppler shifts indicate high
Red Shift
 “Red
Shift” means that an object in
space in moving away from Earth
 The
Red Shift of distant galaxies tell
us that the universe is expanding
Red Shift
red shifts in the color spectrum
of distant galaxies indicate faster speeds
Black Holes
 A region
of space resulting from the
collapse of a star; extremely high
gravitational field that not even light
can escape
 If you fell into a black hole you would
eventually be stretched apart