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Transcript
Big Bang Theory
 An
effort to explain what happened at
the very beginning of our universe.
 According
to the Big Bang Theory, the
universe began about 15 billion years
ago.
Singularity

The theorized beginning of the universe is
called the “singularity”.

It was about the size of a dime; all
particles of matter were contained in an
unimaginably dense object.

Atoms could not form at first because of
the extreme heat.
Formation of Elements

Within the first minute, 98% of all matter in the
universe was formed. It began cooling
immediately.
•
The first particles formed were quarks (make up
protons and neutrons), electrons, photons,
neutrinos.
•
First elements formed were hydrogen, helium
and deuterium (isotope of hydrogen).
Formation of Elements

Formation of heavier
elements were found in
supernovas.

Supernova’s occur when giant
stars (much bigger than our
sun) explode and immense
energy is released (equal to a
trillion hydrogen bombs
detonating!)
Formation of Elements

The 10 million degree Kelvin (equal to
17,999,500 F) temperatures were
adequate to create heavier elements
necessary for life (carbon, nitrogen,
oxygen, sulfur, and phosphorous).

For a very short period of time (10 –30 sec)
the universe doubled itself every 10 –34
second.
Law of Gravity

This period of great expansion helped
establish the law of gravity.

All objects have a gravitational force. The
larger the object the greater the force (ex.
the earth vs. your pen.)

This theory also helps explain how the
force of gravity began to condense clumps
of matter into objects that would eventually
form stars and galaxies.
Big Bang Theory

This theory also helps
explain how the force of
gravity began to
condense clumps of
matter into objects that
would eventually form
stars and galaxies.
The Big Bang Theory Evidence
 Cosmic
Background Radiation moves
in front of our universe.
 When
viewing the sky with a radio
telescope, the sky is not black, but
has a faint glow (this is CBR)
The color differences are variations
in temperature.
Doppler Effect
 Describes
the change in wavelength
of light or sound that occurs when an
object moves toward or away form
you.
Doppler Effect
 Astronomers
are only concerned with
the changes of light wavelengths, not
sound.
 It tells us whether an object is moving
towards or away from Earth
 Large Doppler shifts indicate high
speeds
Red Shift
 “Red
Shift” means that an object in
space in moving away from Earth
 The
Red Shift of distant galaxies tell
us that the universe is expanding
Red Shift
Greater
red shifts in the color spectrum
of distant galaxies indicate faster speeds
Black Holes
 A region
of space resulting from the
collapse of a star; extremely high
gravitational field that not even light
can escape
 If you fell into a black hole you would
eventually be stretched apart
(spaghetification)