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Transcript
Origins of the universe
Summary questions
a) Electromagnetic waves emitted by a source moving:
away from us are ______________ in wavelength.
towards us are ______________ in wavelength.
The change of wavelength increases with the ______________ of the source.
b) i)
The increase in wavelength of light from a star or galaxy moving
away from us is called a _____________________.
ii)
Light from all the distant galaxies is red-shifted to
______________ wavelengths.
iii)
The red-shift of a distant galaxy ______________ with distance
from us.
a) i)
The further away a distant galaxy is, the ______________ the
speed at which it is moving away from us.
ii)
All the distant galaxies are moving ______________ from each
other.
b) i)
The Universe must be ______________ because all the distant
galaxies are moving away from each other.
ii)
The most distant galaxies are about ______________ million
light years away.
a) The Universe started with the ______________, a massive explosion
from a very small point.
b) Background microwave radiation is radiation created just after the
______________.
c) If the average ______________ of the Universe is:
i)
less than a certain amount, it will ____________________________.
The stars will die out.
ii)
more than a certain amount, it will stop expanding and
___________________________. Everything will head for a Big
______________.
4 a)
The Earth’s atmosphere ______________ all electromagnetic
waves except visible light, radio waves and some ultraviolet radiation.
b)
Satellite detectors are used to make observations outside the
______________ and the ______________ parts of the
electromagnetic spectrum.
QUESTION FIVE
The drawing shows a satellite which carries a telescope used
to observe space.
Match words, A, B, C and D, with the numbers 1– 4 in the
sentences.
A
B
C
D
a distant galaxy______
a satellite_____
the Earth_____
the Universe_____
Observations of space using visible light are better from . . .
1 . . . because clouds may block observations taken from . . .
2 . . . .The red-shift in light from . . . 3 . . . provides evidence
of the ‘big bang’ theory of the start of . . . 4 . . . .
QUESTION EIGHT
Light from every star, in every distant galaxy which has
been observed, shows a red-shift.
8A
Why has the feature been given this name?
1
2
3
4
Blue light has a longer wavelength than red light.
Red light has a higher frequency than blue light.
Red light travels at a higher speed than blue light.
Red light has a longer wavelength than blue light.
8B
Which row in the table correctly describes the movement
of galaxies at the present time?
8C
Scientists have used their calculations to deduce the
movement of galaxies hundreds of millions of years
ago.
Which row in the table correctly describes the movement
of galaxies hundreds of millions of years ago?
8D
Red-shift provides direct evidence that the Universe . . .
1
2
3
4
is expanding.
is expanding and must have started at the ‘big bang’.
is expanding and must have started from a tiny starting point.
is expanding and must have started from a tiny starting point at
the ‘big bang’.
QUESTION NINE
The astronomer Hubble calculated the distance of many
galaxies from Earth. He also calculated the velocity at
which many galaxies are moving away from Earth.The
graph shows some of his results. The distance is given in
megaparsecs. One parsec is approximately equal to
30 000 000 000km.
9A
The data in the graph suggests that . . .
1
the further away the galaxy is from Earth, the slower it is
moving.
all galaxies move at different velocities.
the velocity of a galaxy is proportional to its distance away from
Earth.
there is no relationship between the speed of a galaxy and its
distance away from Earth.
2
3
4
9B
The gradient of the line of best fit on the graph is
known as the Hubble constant. The Hubble constant
can be used to estimate the age of the Universe.
From this data, the approximate value of the Hubble
constant in km/s per megaparsec is . . .
1
2
3
4
4.
500.
1000.
2000.
9C
Modern astronomers calculate that the actual value
of the Hubble constant is somewhere between 46
and 80km/s per megaparsec. This is very different
from the number calculated from the graph. This is
because Hubble’s measurements had . . .
1
2
3
4
random errors.
systematic errors.
zero errors.
lack of precision.
9D
The Andromeda galaxy is moving towards our own
Milky Way galaxy. This means that, as viewed from
Earth, light from the Andromeda galaxy will . . .
1
2
3
4
be shifted towards the red end of the spectrum.
show an increase in wavelengths.
be shifted towards the blue end of the spectrum.
show a decrease in frequencies.