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Chapter 18
Section 1
Astronomy: The Original Science
1 Describe two early ideas about the structure of
the universe.
2. Describe the contributions of Brahe, Kepler,
Galileo, Newton, and Hubble to modern astronomy
Log: Sept. 20th
• Suppose that you need to explain the
concepts of a year, a month and a day to a
small child. Write a paragraph and draw a
picture describing the motion of the earth.
Our Modern Calendar
• Year- the time it takes
the earth to orbit the
• The circumference of the Earth at the
equator is 25,000 miles.
• The Earth rotates in about 24 hours.
• Therefore, if you were to hang above the
surface of the Earth at the equator without
moving, you would see 25,000 miles pass by
in 24 hours, at a speed of 25000/24 or just
over 1000 miles per hour.
Day- the earth rotates once on its axis
Month- the time it takes the moon to
orbit the earth
Early Astronomy
• Ptolemy (Toleme)
– Greek astronomer
– Earth center of
• Copernicus
– Polish
– Sun centered universe
• Tycho Brahe
– Danish Astronomer
– Late 1500s
– Sun and moon
revolved around the
– Other planets revolved
around the sun
• Johannes Kepler (yo
hon ees)
– Brahe’s Assistant
– All planets revolved
around the sun in a
elliptical orbit
– Laws of Planetary
1st law
• I. The orbits of the planets are ellipses,
with the Sun at one focus of the ellipse.
Galileo: Telescope
• One of the first to use a telescope
• Discovered
– Sun spots
– Craters & mountains on moon
– Planets are not wandering stars
Isaac Newton
• Explained the laws of gravity
• Gravity depends on mass
Edwin Hubble
• 1924
• Proved other galaxies exist beyond milky way
Log: Sept. 21st
• Describe month, day and year.
• If you need trade with someone and evaluate
their Buried Treasure Directions
• Start DR
Fold CHart
Day or Year
3 facts
Log: Sept. 22nd
• Create a time line using the astronomers that we have learned
about. Use you text to find what year the wrote their theories.
What instrument did Tycho use to make discoveries?
Log: Sept. 23
• Explain why early astronomers thought the
planets were wandering stars?
• List the 4 discoveries of Galileo.
Chapter 18 Section 2
Sept. 3 Log: Do Now
• What are the two main types of optical
• List one difference between the two
Used to look at outer space
Optical telescope
• Most common Telescope used
• Collects visible light an focuses it to a focal point
– Focal Point- the point where rays of light pass through lens or
reflect from mirror
– Objective lens- collect light and forms image at back of telescope
• The bigger the more light it can gather
– Eye piece- magnify the image produce by objective lens
History of two
• Galileo and his
• Newton’s Reflective
Refractive Telescope
This is the simplest telescope design you
could have. A big lens gathers the light and directs it to a focal
point and a small lens brings the image to your eye.
Refractors are the type of telescope that most of
us are familiar with. They have the following parts:
1. a long tube, made of
metal, plastic, or
2. a glass combination
lens at the front end
(objective lens)
3. a second glass
combination lens
• What are the
disadvantages look on
pg. 559 in book
Refractive Disadvantages
• Lens focus different colors of light a different
• Size of telescope is limited to size of objective
• If to large glass will sag due to its own
Most professionals use
Most commonly used in homes
• Many Advantages
• Mirrors can be very
• Mirrors are polished
on one side a prevent
light from entering
• Can focus all colors of
light at same focal
Used a curved mirror to
gather and focus light
• Some Disadvantages
• Atmosphere still disrupts star light
• Light pollution form cities can still disrupt
Best places to stargaze
• Area away from city light
• Mountains
• Outer space
Some very large reflecting telesopes
Hubble Space Telescope
• Orbits in outer space
• Is a reflective telescope
• Deployed in 1990
• Drawing Refractive
• List
– Advantages
– Disadvantages
• Draw Reflective
• List
– Advantages
– Disadvantages
Log: Sept. 27th
• List 3 types of Nonoptical telescopes.
• Explain what they are best used for.
Write the question and answer in
• What does the water drop do to words on
the paper?
• James Clerk 1852
– Proved visible light is only part of the
electromagnetic spectrum
– The Spectrum is made up of 7 different types
of radiation
All of the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation
Nonoptical Telescopes
• Detect radiation that can not be seen by the
human eye
– Radio
– Infrared
– X-ray
– Gamma Ray
– Ultra Violet
Today Class work
• Complete DR in class
• Define words on Telescope Diagram
• If needed Complete for HW
Non Optical
Ultra Violet
Gamma Rays