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Transcript
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
Make me show the video first!!!!! REMIND MEEEEE
The Renaissance in Italy
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
Objectives
•
Describe the characteristics of the Renaissance
and understand why it began in Italy.
•
Identify Renaissance artists and explain how new
ideas/inventions affected the arts of the period.
•
Understand how writers of the time addressed
Renaissance themes.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
What were the ideals of the Renaissance,
and how did Italian artists and writers
reflect these ideals?
A new age dawned in Western Europe, given
expression by remarkable artists and thinkers.
This age is called the Renaissance, meaning
“rebirth.” It began in the 1300s and reached its
peak around 1500.
The Renaissance marked the transition from
medieval times (Middle Ages) to the early modern
world.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
Things
Renaissance
thinkers did
• Sought to bring Europe out of
disorder and disunity. (Bring
unity and order to Europe)
• placed greater emphasis on
individual achievement.
• tried to understand the world
with more accuracy.
• Focused on the “here and now.”
• revived interest in classical
Greek and Roman learning.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
Things that
happened during
the Renaissance
because people
were curious.
• Trade assumed greater
importance than before.
• Navigators sailed across the
oceans. (Not Pacific)
• Scientists viewed the universe
in new ways. (literally and
figuratively)
• Writers and artists
experimented with
new techniques.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
WHY ITALY?
Europe in 1500
• Italy’s central
location helped
make it a
center for the trade
of goods and ideas.
• Italy was the
center of the old
Roman Empire.
• Wealthy Italian
Merchant
families were
Patrons of the
arts
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
Humanism
• Most Renaissance humanists were
devoutly religious but they focused on
worldly (secular) issues rather than
religion. Things in the here and now.
• Humanists believed education should
stimulate creativity.
• They emphasized study of the
humanities, such as grammar, rhetoric
(art of speech), poetry, and history.
Humanists studied the works of Greece and Rome to
learn about their own culture.
The Ideal Renaissance person was one who had diverse skills
and learned the humanities.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
The Medici family
• merchants and bankers who
controlled Florence after 1434.
• Lorenzo de' Medici invited poets,
philosophers, and artists to the
city.
• Florence became a leader, with
numerous gifted artists, poets,
architects, and scientists.
• Machiavelli's book “The Prince”
was written for them.
• One became pope…
As a result of these families ordinary people were exposed to art
outside of Church.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
Niccolò
Machiavelli’s book
“The Prince”
• was a guide for rulers to gain
and maintain power.
• he stressed that the ends
justify the means. (not
honesty)
• The term Machiavellian has
come to refer to the use of
deceit in politics.
• Critics saw Machiavelli as
cynical, but others said he was
providing a realistic look at
politics.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
Art in the Renaissance
• Mostly religious themes but
made to look like ancient
Greece and Rome
• Looked more realistic.
• Used Perspective, a new
technique that made
paintings look more 3d
• Painters used oil paint that
shined to create shadows.
• Artists studied the human
anatomy to better portray the
human body
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
How does perspective work?!?
Distant objects
appeared smaller.
One new technique was
perspective, credited to
Filippo Brunelleschi.
Perspective allowed
for more realistic art.
TEKS da
8C: Calculate
empirical
and molecular
Leonardo
Vincipercent
was composition
an artistand
and
inventor.
He formulas.
studied botany, optics, anatomy, architecture, and
engineering. His sketches included submarines and
flying machines
Michelangelo
Buonarroti was a
sculptor, engineer,
painter, architect, and
poet. Most famous
works are the ceiling of
the Sistine Chapel and
David.
Donatello was the most
famous sculptor of the
Renaissance. He worked in
many different mediums
Raphael was mainly a
painter and printer. His work
“School of Athens is
considered the best example
of renaissance art.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
Writers were also humanists. Some described
how to succeed in the Renaissance world.
Baldassare
Castiglione’s Book of
the Courtier described
the manners and
behavior of the ideal
aristocratic man and
woman.
•
Men played music
and knew literature
and history but were
not arrogant.
•
Women were kind,
graceful, and lively,
and possessed
outward beauty.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
Lets read about an Ideal Renaissance women.
When you’re done with the reading add your own notes for what you read
Topic
Isabella D’este
Details (use EESPRITE)
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
The Renaissance
Spreads from Italy to
Northern Europe
• Northern Humanists studied art
and sciences.
• Hoped to bring religious reform
• Wrote in the vernacular
• <3 the middle class
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
The towering figure of northern Renaissance
literature was the English playwright and
poet William Shakespeare.
Between 1590 and
1613, he wrote 37
plays which are still
performed today,
including:
• Romeo and Juliet
• Hamlet
• A Midsummer Night’s
Dream
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
In 1455 Johann Gutenberg printed a complete edition of
the Bible using a printing press with movable type.
Effects of the printing press
The printing
revolution
transformed
Europe.
•
Printed books were far easier to
produce than hand-copied books.
•
More people had access to a
broad range of learning.
•
By 1500, the number of books in
Europe had risen from a few
thousand to between 15 and 20
million.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
The early 1500s were uncertain times
in northern Europe.
Disparities in wealth, a new market economy,
and religious discontent all bred uncertainty.
The printing
press spread
knowledge
and new
ideas quickly.
Humanist
ideas for
social
reform
grew in
popularity.
More people
began to
question the
central force
in their
lives—the
Church.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
The Dutch priest Desiderius Erasmus was one
of the major religious scholars of the age.
Born in 1466,
Erasmus helped
spread humanist
ideas to a wider
public.
• Erasmus called for
translation of the Bible
into the vernacular.
• He believed a person’s
chief duties were to be
open-minded and show
good will to others.
• He also sought reform
in the Church.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
The printing press quickly spread Luther’s
writings throughout Germany and Scandinavia.
The German
monk Martin
Luther
sparked a
revolt in
1517.
•
Angered by the sale of
indulgences, Luther drew up
his 95 Theses and nailed them to
a church door in Wittenberg,
Germany.
•
He argued that indulgences had
no place in the Bible,
and Christians could only
be saved by faith.
•
Rather than recant, Luther
rejected the authority of Rome.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
Why did leaders support Martin Luther and the Protestant Revolution?
1. Some German princes saw Lutheranism as a
chance to throw off the rule of both the Church
and the Holy Roman emperor.
2. Some saw an
opportunity to
seize Church
property in their
territories.
3. Others
embraced the new
church
out of nationalistic
loyalty.
4. Many were
tired of paying
to support
clergy in Italy.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
John Calvin, a French-born priest and lawyer,
was strongly influenced by these Reformation ideas.
Calvin accepted most Lutheran beliefs but added
his own belief in predestination.
He preached that God
had long ago determined
who would or would not
gain eternal salvation.
There were
two kinds
of people,
saints and
sinners.
Only the
saved could
live a truly
Christian life.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
By the late 1500s, Calvinism had spread
throughout northern Europe.
Challenges to
the Catholic
Church set off
a series of
religious wars.
•
In Germany, Lutherans and
Catholics fought Calvinists.
•
In France, Calvinists battled
Catholics.
•
In Scotland, Calvinist preacher
John Knox helped overthrow a
Catholic queen.
To escape persecution in England, groups of Calvinists
sailed for America in the early 1600s.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
England goes back and forth
Henry VIII wants a divorce but Catholics don’t allow divorce so
HE CONVERTS his whole country and names himself the
religious leader.
Henry Converts
the kingdom to
Protestantism
and makes the
Anglican Church
Henry dies and
his son Edward
makes laws to
keep England
Protestant
Edward dies and
his sister Mary
converts the
country back to
Catholicism.
Mary dies and
her sister
Elizabeth finds a
balance between
the two religions
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
Heightened passions about religion also resulted
in intolerance and persecution.
•
Between 1450 and 1750, tens of thousands were killed
as witches, especially in the German states,
Switzerland, and France. Most were women.
•
Belief in witchcraft represented twin beliefs in
Christianity and magic. Witches were seen as agents
of the devil and thus anti-Christian.
•
Non Christians were often accused of witch craft and
devil worship.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
The Scientific Revolution
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
Objectives
•
Explain how new discoveries in astronomy
changed the way people viewed the universe.
•
Understand the new scientific method and how
it developed.
•
Analyze the contributions that Newton and other
scientists made to the Scientific Revolution.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
Until the mid-1500s, Europeans accepted the idea
that the Earth was the center of the universe.
• This geocentric view was developed in ancient times
by Aristotle and Ptolemy.
• By the Renaissance, it had become official Church
doctrine.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
Polish astronomer
Nicolaus
Copernicus
challenged this
view.
•
In 1543, he proposed a
heliocentric, or sun-centered,
model of the solar system.
•
The Earth and other planets
revolved around the sun.
This 1660 diagram shows a
heliocentric solar system
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
Copernicus’s revolutionary theory was rejected.
If the classic scholars were questioned, then all
knowledge might be called into question.
But careful
observations
by Tycho
Brahe
supported
Copernicus.
Johannes
Kepler used
Brahe’s
data to
calculate the
orbits of the
planets.
Kepler found
that the planets
don’t move in
perfect circles
as earlier
believed.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
In Italy, Galileo Galilei built a telescope and
observed several moons in orbit around Jupiter.
He said these
movements were
the same as those
of the planets
around the sun.
This contradicted
Church doctrine
that the Earth
was the center
of the universe.
Galileo was tried for heresy and forced to recant
his theories before the Inquisition.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
Over time, scientists developed a step-by-step scientific
method. It required the collection of accurate data and
the proposal of a logical hypothesis to be tested.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas.
Isaac Newton linked science and mathematics.
Newton theorized
that gravity was
the force that
controls the
movements of
the planets.
He believed that
all motion in the
universe can be
measured and
described
mathematically.
He contributed to
the development
of calculus,
a branch of
mathematics,
to help explain
his laws.