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Nutrition + Wellness
Unit 2
The Nutrition Health Connection
2.1—36 Terms To Know•
Amino Acid
Lactose Intolerance
Fat Soluble Vitamin
Complete Protein
HDL-(High Density
• Dental Caries
• Dietary Fiber
• LDL-(Low Density
• Diuretic
• Atherosclerosis
• Essential Amino Acid
• Incomplete Protein
• Macromineral
• hypoglycemia
36 Terms to Know…
Diabetes Mellitus
Complex Carbohydrates
Water Soluble Vitamins
Unsaturated Fatty Acid
Saturated Fatty Acid
Trans-Fatty Acid
Non Essential Amino Acid
Simple Carbohydrates
• One of the building blocks of protein
• Amino Acid
• A substance that helps protect your body
from cell damage that can lead to health
• Antioxidant
• Hardened & narrowed arteries caused by
plaque deposits-
• Atheroscierosis
• An essential nutrient that is the body’s
main source of energy, includes sugars &
• Carbohydrate
• A waxy liquid found in every cell of the
body, found in foods from animal sources-
• Cholesterol
• A protein that contains all the essential
amino acids-
• Complete protein
• Starches, carbohydrates made of many
sugars attached together-
• Complex Carbohydrates
• A state in which the body contains a lower
than normal amount of body fluid-
• Dehydration
• Tooth decay-
• Dental Caries
• Lack of, or inability to use the hormone
insulin, which results in the build up of
glucose in the bloodstream-
• Diabetes Mellitus
• Plant material that cannot be digested-
• Dietary Fiber
• A substance that increases urine
• Diuretic
• An amino acid that cannot be made by the
body & must be supplied by the diet-
• Essential Amino Acid
• A nutrient that provides a concentrated
source of energy & helps protect the body
from sudden changes in outside
• Fat
• A vitamin that dissolves in fats: A,D,E, &
• Fat Soluble Vitamin
• Picks up cholesterol from around the body
& transports it back to the liver for removal
from the body-
• HDL-(High Density Lipoprotein)
• Low blood glucose levels-
• Hypoglycemia
• A protein that is missing one or more of
the essential amino acids-
• Incomplete Protein
• Inability to digest lactose-
• Lactose Intolerance
• Carries cholesterol made by the liver to
the blood cells-
• LDL-(Low Density Lipoprotein)
• A mineral required in the diet in an amount
of 100 milligrams or more per day-
• Macromineral
• A mineral required in the diet in an amount
less than 100 milligrams per day-
• Micromineral
• Nutrients that regulate the body
processes or become a part of body
• Minerals
• An amino acid that can be synthesized by
the body• *Synthesized—your body can use one or
more compounds to make a new &
different compound!
• Non Essential Amino Acid
• A chemical substance in food that helps to
maintain the body-
• Nutrient
• Health-enhancing non-nutrient compounds
in plant foods that are active in the body at
the cellular level-
• Phytochemicals
• One of the 6 basic nutrients composed of
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen & nitrogen—the
body uses it for growth & maintenance-
• Protein
• A fatty acid that has no double bonds in its
chemical structure & carries a full load of
hydrogen atoms—A saturated fatty acid is
sold at room temperature-
• Saturated Fatty Acid
• Sugars, carbohydrates made of one or two
sugar units-
• Simple Carbohydrates
• A polysaccharide that is the storage form
of energy in plants—A complex
carbohydrate found in foods such as
potatoes, corn, rice, grits, pasta, oatmeal
& cornmeal-
• Starch
• A collective term used to refer to all the
monosaccharides & disaccharides-
• Sugars
• A fatty acid with an odd molecule shape
that forms when oils are partially
• Trans-fatty Acid
• A fatty acid that has at least one double
bond between two carbon atoms in a
carbon atom chain & is missing at least
two hydrogen atoms—an unsaturated fatty
acid is liquid at room temperature-
• Unsaturated Fatty Acid
• Practice of eating a diet consisting entirely
or largely of food from plant sources-
• Vegetarianism
• Nutrients that don’t provide energy or build
body tissue-but help regulate these &
other body processes-
• Vitamins
• A vitamin that dissolves in water & is not
stored in the body-Vitamin C or one of the
B complex vitamins-
• Water Soluble Vitamins
List the 6 nutrients:
1. Carbohydrates
2. Proteins
3. Fats
4. Vitamins
5. Minerals
6. Water
2.2.1• Create a mnemonic device-graphic
organizer for the nutrients-
2.3• Describe the role of Carbohydrates on
health, appearance & peak performance• *Meeting the energy needs of all your cells
as they work to sustain life is your body’s
main goal!
• Sources: Potatoes, Bread, Pasta, Rice,
Fruits, Vegetables, Whole Grains,
Legumes (dried beans & peas)
Functions of Carbohydrates• 1. Body’s main source of energy
• 2. Allows proteins to be used for building &
maintaining cell structures—vital!
• 3. If Carbohydrates are not present—proteins
will be used for energy
• 4. Aids breakdown of fats
• 5. If Carbohydrates are not present—Ketone
Bodies are formed, causing acidic blood—
damaging cells & organs—called Ketosis—can
cause death
Carbohydrates• 55-60% of daily calories should come from
• Limit fatty toppings often served over
Carbohydrates—not the Carbohydrates
• Creates
• A. Sugars
• B. Starches
• C. Fiber…….. in your diet
A. Sugars• Leads to overweight, malnutrition & tooth
• “Fat Free” products add sugar to product
when fat is removed
B. Starches-• Preferred source of fuel for your diet
• Most abundant carbs in the body
• Excellent source of Vitamins, Minerals,
• Comes from roots, seeds, tubers
C. Fiber-•
Tough, fibrous cell walls of plants
Cannot be digested
Moves waste through intestines
Reduces time carcinogens (cancer
causing agents) in food
• Acts like a sponge—swells-absorbsmakes you feel fuller (satiety)
• Eat plenty of fiber in a low-fat diet
C. Fiber• Whole grain products contain all three
edible parts of the grain kernel:
• 1. Bran—Outer layer of the grain
• 2. Germ—Nutrient rich part of the kernel
• 3. Endosperm—Largest part—contains
• *Increase daily fiber intake with whole
grain products in place of refined grain
products (white rice & flour)
2.3.1• Chart the relationship of sugars, starches
& fiber to dental health, hyperactivity,
diabetes, hypoglycemia, lactose
intolerance, sugar addiction & weight gain-
Dental Health• Starches & sugars promote tooth decay
• Bacteria that lives in the mouth feed on
Carbohydrates in food particles
• Bacteria forms a sticky substance called
Plaque that clings to teeth
• Growth bacteria produces acid that eats
away the tooth enamel
Hyperactivity• Person seems to be in constant motion—
easily distracted
• Too much sugar in the diet has been
blamed for this
• Do not substitute sugar for nutrients in the
daily diet
• More nutrients—better daily performance
Diabetes-• Lack of / or inability to use the hormone “Insulin”
• Sugar & starches you eat are converted to
• Glucose enters the bloodstream
• Insulin regulates blood glucose by stimulating
cells to pull glucose from the bloodstream
• When body does not make enough Insulin / or
fails to use it properly—Glucose builds up in the
Hypoglycemia• Overproduction of Insulin cause blood
sugar to drop sharply after eating
• Central Nervous System depends on
constant supply of Glucose from blood
• Low blood sugar causes physical
symptoms: sweating, shaking,
headaches, hunger & anxiety
Lactose Intolerance• An inability to digest Lactose (main
Carbohydrate in milk)
• Condition is caused by a lack of digestive
enzyme Lactase—needed to break down
• Symptoms: cramping, nausea & diarrhea
Sugar Addiction• *The Sweet Tooth!
• Too much sugar in the diet leads to overweight
& malnutrition
• Many processed foods have hidden sugar—be a
label reader
• Sugar increases the calories a food provides
without increasing the nutrients it provides
• Manufacturers often add sugar to products when
the fat is removed
Weight Gain• Some think eating foods high in starch
causes weight gain
• Starchy foods are rich in Carbohydrates
• Carbohydrates have the same amount of
calories as Protein
• The high-fat toppings served over pasta &
potatoes contribute to weight gain
2.3.2• Categorize food sources as simple or
complex Carbohydrates• Simple Carbohydrates—candy, table
sugar, syrups, soft drinks
• Complex Carbohydrates—breads, cereals,
rice, pasta, vegetables, legumes
Simple or Complex?
• Choose more food sources of “Complex
Carbohydrates” & fewer sources of
“Simple Carbohydrates”—has more health
& nutrition benefits
2.4• Describe the role of Protein on health, appearance &
peak performance• 35% of daily calories should come from Protein
• Is not stored by the body—must be consumed daily
• Young people & pregnant women need protein for
• Men need more than women because of muscle mass
• Sources: Meat (beef-cow, pork-pig, lamb-sheep, fowlchicken, turkey, duck, & fish), eggs & milk
• Builds & maintain body cells
Proteins• Amino acids are absorbed in the
• The blood carries amino acids to body
cells that need them
• Your cells can use amino acids from
Proteins to build new Proteins
• Cells can convert amino acids to other
compounds, including other amino acids
• Must eat a necessary mix of amino acids!
Functions of Proteins• 1. Build & maintain tissues—necessary part of
every cell—forms the structure of all body partsorgans, muscles, skin, blood, hair, nails
• Used to make new tissues when the body is
• Makes up 20% of the body
• Needed to maintain existing tissues
• Each cell has a limited life span—the body is
constantly making new cells to replace dead
Functions of Proteins• 2. Make important compounds• Enzymes—cause specific chemical
reactions in the body (digestion)
• Make some hormones-released in the
blood to control body processes (Insulinregulates level of glucose in blood &
antibodies-defend the body against
Functions of Proteins• 3. Regulate Mineral & Fluid Balance• Proteins carry minerals (Sodium & Potassium)
from one side of cell wall to the other
• Controls the flow of water through cell
• Balance of fluids inside & outside cells is crucial
• Balance is needed for heart, lungs, brain & all
Functions of Proteins• 4. Maintain acid-base balance of blood
• Act as chemical buffers (counteract
excess acid in a fluid)
• 5. Carry vital substances-fat
(lipoproteins), iron & other nutrients in the
blood to needed points throughout the
Function of Proteins• 6. Provide energy-for cell growth & repair
• Provide cells with energy they need to
• If Carbohydrates & fats are lacking in the
body, Proteins will be used for energy &
cannot build cells
• An excess of Protein in the diet will be
used for energy
(2.4.1)—Identify essential & non
essential amino acids• Most Proteins are made up of different patterns
& combinations of 20 amino acids
• All amino acids are needed for good health
• 11 are called nonessential amino acids
(synthesized by the body—use one or more
compounds to make new & different
• 9 are called essential amino acids (body cannot
make)—must come from the diet
2.4.2• Categorize food sources as complete or
incomplete protein• A. Complete Proteins—Animal sources—all
essential amino acids we need are in these
Proteins—is “saturated”-solid at room
temperature-increases cholesterol levels & risk
for heart disease-eat in moderation
• B. Incomplete Proteins—Plant sources—2
incomplete Proteins can make a complete
Protein—combine grains, nuts, seeds with
legumes (dried beans & peas)
A. Animal Sources•
Beef-cow *Americans #1 choice-200 lbs a year!
Fowl-chicken, turkey, duck
Ice Cream
B. Plant Sources•
Legumes (dried
beans & peas):
• Peanuts
Kidney Beans
Black Beans
Lima Beans
Soybeans (tofu)
2.4.3• Analyze & calculate daily Protein needs in
calories & grams using a kitchen
2.4.4• Examine vegetarianism as a dietary
choice• Diet of only plant sources:
• Fruits
• Vegetables
• Grains
• Nuts
2.4.5• Describe the consequences of protein
deficiencies – excesses• Receiving less than the body needs
• Usually present in under-developed
• Kwashiorkor—no growth, affects body’s
fluid balance & immune system
• Marasmus—muscles & tissues waste
2.4.6• Demonstrate the use of a food dehydrator &
food slicer to prepare high-protein snacks• Avoid cooking in oils, lard (pigs fat), shortening
products—adds fat to diet
• Trim visible fat & skin from foods before cooking
or eating
• Drain grease from food before eating or adding
other ingredients
• Avoid fatty toppings: gravies, dressings, sauces
(substitute low-fat ingredients for fat)—fat free
milk, low-fat cheese, fish, legumes
2.5• Describe the role of fats on health, appearance
& peak performance• Should consume no more than 35% of total daily
• Body can conveniently store fat calories for
future energy needs
• Too much is linked to major health problems
• Not all fat is bad—performs important functions
in the body
• Moves Vitamins inside the body (A,D,E & Kdissolve in fats)
Functions of Fats• They provide 9 calories per gram
• Body makes most fatty acids needed for growth &
• Concentrated source of energy
• Called Lipids
• Pads organs—holds in body heat
• Part of every cell structure
• Needed for formation of cell membranes
• Used to make some hormones & vitamins
• Affects taste, texture & aroma of food—browns fried food
• Makes meat moist & flavorful
• Makes baked products tender & flakey
2.5.1• Analyze the connection between fat & health
issues-cholesterol, heart disease, hypertension,
obesity, cancer & diabetes• *Body stores large share of Lipids in Adipose
tissue (located just under the skin) that serves
as an internal blanket that holds in body heat
• The fat cell can expand to hold an almost
unlimited amount of fat
Cholesterol• White, waxy liquid made by the body that
is part of every cell
• The body uses it to make sex hormones &
bile acids
• Found only in animal tissues
• Never present in plant sources
• Not essential in the diet because the body
manufacturers it
Heart Disease• Age-risk of heart problems increase with more
buildup from the diet
• Gender-more men have attacks than females
(hormones seem to help)
• Race-African Americans seem to be at a greater
risk for unknown reason
• Family History-inherited traits seem to be a
factor if blood relatives have had attacks
(parents, grandparents, aunts, uncles, brothers,
Heart Disease• Coronary Heart Disease-leading cause of
death in U.S.
• Arteries-blood vessels that carry oxygen &
nutrients to body tissues become clogged
with plaque (fatty compounds of
cholesterol attach to inside walls)
• Forms in everyone at an early age
• Most common form of heart disease
• Heart has to work harder to pump blood
through narrowed arteries—raising blood
• Creates blood clots-cutting off blood
supply to tissues fed by arteries (heart
• Stroke-buildup of plaque in the arteries
leading to the brain
Heart Factors You Can Control• 1. Your lifestyle• Break bad habits & begin better ones (most foods are
eaten out of habit)
• Do not smoke or inhale second hand smoke
• Exercise daily—move something
• Manage stress
• Lose weight
• Eat diets low in saturated fats (animal) & trans-fatty acids
• Avoid drugs
• Eat more fruits, vegetables & whole grains
• Eat fried foods once a week
• Limit visible fats
Heart Factors to Control• Cook using low-fat methods (bake, broil,
• Avoid egg yolks & organ meats
• Omega 3 fatty acids (fish) are good
• Be a fat detective—know where fats are in
the food you eat
• Read labels—compare fat, calories, sugar
Heart Factors•
2. Your blood pressurePlaces added stress on the heart
Damages walls of arteries
Accumulate plaque more easily
Causes blood vessels to become stretched &
injured- trapping plaque easier
• 3. Your blood cholesterol• Artery clogging plaque is made up largely of
Heart Factors• 4. Your excess weight• Because fats are such a concentrated source of
energy, calories from fat mount up quickly
• Every pound of stored body fat is equal to 3,500
calories of energy
• We regularly consume more calories than
• As fat stores increase, the number of blood
vessels increase to nourish added tissues-more
work for the heart
• Often risk a shorter life span & diabetes
Heart Factors• 5. Inactivity• Fail to give heart a regular workout
• Exercising daily helps-manage weight, reduce
stress, control cholesterol & strengthen heart
• 6. Stress & Personality• People who over react to life’s demands may
suffer negative heart health
• Those who are competitive, impatient, irritable
are at risk
Heart Factors• Find an enjoyable hobby
• Set priorities & use time wisely
• Keep a positive attitude
Hypertension• High blood pressure
• Heart health risk factor
• Involves an excess force on the walls of the
arteries as blood is pumped from the heart
• Normal blood pressure reading is 120/80
• 1st #--systolic pressure— pressure on the
arteries when the heart muscle contracts
• 2nd #--diastolic pressure—pressure on the
arteries when the heart is between beats
Obesity• Overweight people, statistically, have a
shorter life span
• Increases risk for Diabetes Mellitus, high
blood cholesterol & high blood pressure
• Eating a nutritious diet & exercise will
reduce risks
Cancer• General term that refers to a number of diseases
in which abnormal cells grow out of control
• Second largest cause of death in U.S.
• Half of all cancers appear to be related to diet
• Lifestyle choices have an impact on cancer
• High fat diets may promote colon, prostate,
breast cancers
• Fiber in fruits, vegetables & whole grains have
anticancer protective factors
Diabetes• Causes blood vessels to become
damaged or blocked with fat-reducing
blood circulation beyond normal plaque
2.5.2• Categorize food sources as saturated,
unsaturated & trans-fatty acids• A. Saturated—Animal-solid at room temp
• Eat in moderation
• Sources—butter, margarine, fats in meats, dairy
products, tropical oils (coconut & palm oils)
• B. Unsaturated—Plant-liquid at room temp—
• Sources—vegetable oils, nuts, olives, avocados
2.5.3• Analyze & calculate daily fat needs in
calories & grams using a kitchen
2.5.4• Demonstrate the use of a rotisserie, grill or
wok to reduce fat in food• Fats are drained from this type of kitchen
2.6• Describe the role of vitamins on health,
appearance & peak performance• Not identified until 20th century
• Needed in tiny amounts
• Have no calorie value because they yield no
• Are needed for chemical reactions involved in
releasing energy from other nutrients
• Vital to health & wellness
• 13 are known
• Are organic compounds containing carbon
Vitamins• Only 1 ounce is needed for every 150 pounds of
food eaten
• All Vitamins needed daily add up to 1/8
• Young people need these for growth of body
• Pregnant moms need them for developing fetus
• Sick-injured people need them for fighting
2.6.1• Chart deficiencies –excesses of fat-soluble &
water-soluble vitamins• A. Fat-Soluble Vitamins• Vitamins A,D,E,K
• Stored by the body—body will draw on stored
reserves when intake is low (in the liver)
• Absorbed through intestinal walls with fats from
• Sources: dairy products, vegetables, whole milk,
B. Water-Soluble Vitamins• Must be consumed daily-not stored by body
• Includes B Vitamins & Vitamin C
• B Vitamins—Work as a team-coenzymes providing
energy needed by cells
• Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, B
6, Folate, B 12
• Vitamin C—Ascorbic Acid—formation of Collagen
(protein substance in connective tissue holding cells
together)—helps wounds heal quickly—maintains
capillaries & gums-increases Iron & Calcium absorption
Sources—whole grains, dairy products, vegetables, fruits
Vitamin C• Vital to immune system-protects body
against infections
• Deficiency—Scurvy
• Sources: citrus fruits, cantaloupe,
strawberries, sweet peppers, broccoli,
cabbage, potatoes
2.6.2• Assess the need for Vitamin supplements• Supplement-concentrated source of a
nutrient in pill, liquid or powder form
• Can benefit us if not receiving a nutrient
from a food source
2.6.3• Research functions & sources of
antioxidants & phytochemicals• A. Antioxidants-substances that react with
oxygen to protect other substances from
harmful effects of oxygen exposure
• Vitamin E, Vitamin C & provitamin (body
can convert them into the active form of a
vitamin) A are antioxidants
B. Phytochemicals• Health –enhancing non-nutrient
compounds in plant foods that are active
in the body at the cellular level
2.6.4• Demonstrate the use of a juice to prepare
a vitamin-rich beverage-
2.7• Describe the role of minerals on health,
appearance & peak performance• Make up 4 % of body weight
• Needed in small amounts to perform various
functions in the body
• Provide no calories
• 16 minerals are important in the diet
• Help enzymes complete chemical reactions
• Become part of body components
Minerals• Aid normal nerve functioning & muscle
• Regulate acid-base balance in the body
• Maintain body fluid balance
• Less than ½ are absorbed by the body
• High fiber diets absorb minerals instead of the
• Avoid unneeded medications, caffeineincreasing urine output-washing minerals out of
the body
Minerals• Animal sources are best source of
minerals—21 are needed for good health
• Vitamin D improves absorption of Calcium
& Phosphorus
• 2 Groups of Minerals:
• 1. Macrominerals-major minerals
• Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Sulfur,
Sodium, Potassium, Chloride
2. Microminerals•
Trace Minerals
Copper Chromium
2.7.1• Chart the deficiencies- excesses of
macrominerals & microminerals• Deficiencies in Calcium will result in poor
bones & teeth
• Pregnant moms need extra Calcium for
developing baby or her bones will be
• Excesses—kidney stones, constipation &
2.7.2• Assess the need for mineral supplements• Benefits those who cannot consume dairy products
• Calcium carbonate, Calcium phosphate & Calcium
citrate are best choices
• Supplements made from powdered Calcium-containing
materials, such as bones & oyster shells are not
recommended (contain lead)
• Taking supplements in small doses between meals helps
• Reduces risk of Osteoporosis in later life
• Can hinder the absorption of other nutrients Iron & Zinc
2.7.3• Demonstrate the use of a blendersmoothie machine to prepare a calciumrich beverage-
2.8• Describe the role of water on health,
appearance & peak performance• Most often major nutrient overlooked
• Most critical nutrient
• Must be replaced daily
• Is present in every cell
• Determines the shape, size, firmness of cells
• Body weight is 70% water (10-12 gallons)
• Fat tissue is 35% water
• Muscle tissue is 75% water
Water• Carries nutrients to & waste from cells
throughout the body
• Reduces friction between body surfaces
• Controls body temperature
• Should drink 6-8 glasses per day
• Drinking plenty of water when young may
lessen kidney problems later
• Breaks down Carbohydrates, Fats,
Proteins for energy
Water• Is needed for digestion to break down starches
into glucose
• Blood is primarily made of water
• Kidneys filter wastes from the blood & forms
• Assists the easy passage of nutrients
• Tear lubricates the eyes
• Cushions vital tissues & organs to protect them
from injury
• Helps body keep 98.6 degrees F
Water• Light colored urine shows you are drinking
enough to keep wastes flushed out of the
• Dark yellow urine is dangerous to your
kidneys—shows a high concentration of
2.8.1• Compile information on bottled water
versus tap water• Bottled water is no better for you than tap
• If tap water is pure-bottled water comes
from same source
2.8.2• Determine water loss-replacement needs
during physical activity• Drink 6-8 glasses of water daily
• The thirst mechanism is not always a
reliable indicator of fluid needs
• Make an effort to consume more fluids
before activity or hot weather
2.8.3• Explain the dangers of dehydration to the
body• *Dehydration-state in which the body
contains a lower-than-normal amount of
body fluids
• Should drink water even if you don’t feel
thirst sensation
Dehydration• Hormones signal the kidneys to decrease
urine output
• Sweat production declines
• Volume of fluid in the bloodstream drops
• Concentration of Sodium in the blood
• Kidneys respond to the higher blood
sodium level by retaining more water
Dehydration• Replacing lost water is important to peak
athletic performance
• The heart must pump harder to supply the
same amount of energy
• Mental concentration is affected as fluid
losses increase
• A 10-11% drop in body weight due to
water losses can result in serious organ