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Transcript
NUTRIENTS
CARBOHYDRATES
• Body’s main source of energy
• Sugars, starches, grains, rice, pastas, and fiber are
examples of carbohydrates
• 60% of your diet should come from carbohydrates
• 1 gram of carbohydrates = 4 calories
Take your total caloric needs and multiply it by .60.
Then divide by 4. This will give you your total grams of
carbs needed per day.
(1800 X .60 = 1080 1080 / 4 = 270 grams needed per
day.)
• There is limited storage space for carbohydrates in our
bodies, therefore, the excess turns to fat
2 TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES
• 1. Simple Carbohydrates (Sugars)
–
–
–
–
–
Provide quick energy
Natural sugar (fruit, milk, honey)
Processed sugar (cakes, candy, pop)
Provide the body with calories only
Does not provide the body with many vitamins
and minerals
2 TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES
• 2. Complex Carbohydrates
– Main source of calories in diet should come from here.
– Starches, Fiber, and whole grains are examples of complex
carbohydrates
• Whole grains provide the body with B Vitamins, and minerals as well as
Carbohydrates
• Starch: a food substance that is made and stored in most plants. Provide
long lasting energy
(ex. Potatoes)
• Fiber: the part of grains and plants that cannot be digested. Aids in the
movement of food in the digestive system. (ex. Shredded Wheat)
WHAT ELSE DOES FIBER DO?
• Helps prevent constipation and other
intestinal problems as well as keeps
you “regular”
• Reduces blood cholesterol level and
risk for developing heart disease.
• Adds bulk to your diet making you
feel fuller faster, therefore may reduce
appetite
SOURCES OF CARBOHYDRATES
• Natural sugars found in fruits, honey
and milk
• Processed sugars/Table sugar
• Breads, whole grains, cereals
• Pasta, rice
• Vegetables such as potatoes, beans,
carrots (starchy veggies)
PROTEINS
• Proteins are needed:
– For growth
– To build, repair and maintain body
tissues
– To regulate the body processes
– To supply energy
• Skin, Hair and Nails – mostly proteins
• Every cell in our body needs protein to carry
out all metabolisms that sustain us.
PROTEINS CONTINUED…
• 20% of your diet needs to come from protein
• Can calculate ballpark protein needs by
dividing your body weight by 2.
(120 / 2 = 60 grams of protein needed)
• 1 gram of protein = 4 calories
Can take your total caloric need and multiply
by 20%. Then divide that number by 4 to get
grams needed per day.. (1800 X .20 = 360; 360
divided by 4 = 90 grams)
• Excess protein is stored as FAT
2 TYPES OF PROTEINS
• Complete Protein
– Contains all the essential
amino acids;
• Meat, fish, poultry, milk,
yogurt, eggs
– Amino Acids are the
building blocks that make
up proteins.
– Body needs 20 amino
acids to function properly.
Body only can produce 11
on its own, so we need 9
more from the foods we
eat
•
Incomplete Protein
–
–
–
Does not contain all the
essential amino acids.
Must combine these foods to
get all the essential amino
acids.
Fall into 3 categories:
1. Grains (whole, pastas, and
corn)
2. Legumes (dried beans, peas
and lentils)
3. Nuts and Seeds
SOURCES OF PROTEINS
Food Sources include:
Complete:
Meat, Fish, Poultry, Milk, Yogurt, Eggs
Incomplete:
Whole Grains, Pastas, Corn, Dried
Beans, Peas, Lentils, Nuts, Seeds
FATS
Less than 30% of your diet must come from fat
1 gram fat = 9 calories of energy
(1800 X .25 = 450; 450 divided by 9 = 50 grams)
FATS
FUNCTION OF FATS:
• Cushions internal organs
• Maintains body heat
• Stores fat-soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K)
• Builds brain cells and nerve tissues
• Used as energy once carbohydrate energy is
depleted
• Gives food taste and texture
2 MAIN TYPES OF FATS
1. Saturated Fat – usually in solid form when in
room temperature
•
•
•
•
Examples: Dairy product, Solid vegetable fat, meat and
poultry
Contribute to Cholesterol levels
Dietary + Cholesterol produced by body = Total
cholesterol level.
Cholesterol
– Fat like substance made by the body and found in
certain foods
– Dietary Cholesterol – found in foods of animal origin
(meats and dairy)
2 MAIN TYPES OF FATS
2. Unsaturated Fat - Liquid at room
temperature
– Type of fat obtained from plant products
and fish.
– 2 types:
• Polyunsaturated: sunflower, corn and
soybean oils
• Monounsaturated: olive and canola oil
VITAMINS
• Helps the body use carbohydrates, proteins
and fats
• Come in two types:
Fat Soluble (A,D,E,K)
Water Soluble (B Vitamins, C)
Fat Soluble Vitamins dissolve in fat and can be
stored in the body
Water Soluble Vitamins dissolve in water and
cannot be stored by the body
VITAMINS
VITAMIN A
Primary Function is good eyesight
Food Sources – carrots, liver, eggs, milk, dark
green vegetables
VITAMIN D
Primary Function is to maintain bone
structure
Food Sources – fish oils, butter, eggs, milk
Sunlight is also a source of Vitamin D
VITAMINS
VITAMIN E
Primary Function is to protect other vitamins
from Oxygen, protects white blood
cells
Food Sources – vegetables, milk, lettuce
VITAMIN K
Primary Function is to help with blood
clotting
Food Sources – spinach, eggs, liver, tomatoes
VITAMINS
VITAMIN B
Primary Function is to make sure cells are
working properly
Food Sources – Grains, Cereals, Meats,
Milk, Eggs, Cheese, Fish, Nuts
VITAMIN C
Primary Function is to protect against
infection and helps with the absorption of
iron
MINERALS
– Minerals regulate many chemical reactions in the
body
– Two types of minerals:
• Macro Minerals
• Trace Minerals
– Macro Minerals are minerals required in
amounts greater than 100 milligrams.
Examples: Calcium, Sodium
– Trace Minerals are needed in very small
amounts. Examples are Iron and Zinc
MINERALS
CALCIUM
Primary Function is to form bone and teeth
Food Source – Dairy Products
SODIUM
Primary Function is to maintain the volume
of fluid outside of cells
Food Source – Table Salt, Processed Meats
MINERALS
IRON
Primary Function is to help red blood cells
carry oxygen
Food Sources – Red Meat, Dark Green
Leafy Vegetables
POTASSIUM
Primary Function is to maintain electrolyte
balance and maintain heartbeat
WATER
• Water is involved in all body processes
• Functions of water include:
– 1. makes up the basic part of blood
– 2. helps with waste removal
– 3. regulates body temperature
– 4. cushions the spine and joints
– 5. carries nutrients to all cells and removes
wastes from cells to the kidneys
WATER
You need at least 8 glasses of water each day
You can only live for about 3 days without water
Drink water when you are sick:
Fever, vomiting, diarrhea cause water loss; replace
body fluids and avoid dehydration
Water can also help loosen mucus and carry away
the debris of infection
Tips to get more water in your diet
*Carry a bottle of water with you
*Eat water rich fruits and vegetables