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Transcript
Nutrition
3.
Objective:
1.
Analyze the function of nutrients
2.
Analyze dietary guidelines
Identify characteristics and treatment of
common eating disorders.
Nutrients Are:
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Water
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Minerals
Vitamins
Fiber
Water
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Essential nutrient
55-65% body weight
Body loses water
through evaporation,
excretion, and
respiration
The only nutrient we
sense a need for---Thirst
Carbohydrates

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Monosaccharide = simple
sugar = glucose
Disaccharide = double
sugar
Polysaccharides = complex
sugar
Main source of energy for
the body
CALORIE – unit that
measures the amount of
energy contained within the
chemical bonds of different
foods
Carbohydrate cont.


Empty calories – found
in foods like candy,
cake, cookies that have
no nutritional value
Complex carbohydrates
containing starch and
cellulose are healthier –
they supply
ROUGHAGE – the
indigestible part of
food.
Lipids

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
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Source of energy – twice as
many calories as the same
amount of carbohydrate or
protein
Stored fat provides energy
during emergencies
Body fat cushions internal
organs
Body fat insulates against
the cold
Fat carry fat-soluble
vitamins
Cholesterol

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Fat in animal products like
meat, cheese, eggs
Excess cholesterol in the
body will start to build up
inside the artery walls
causing atherosclerosis
Recommended blood level
under 200 mg/dl
HDL – High Density
Lipoprotein – “good”,
removes excess cholesterol
from the cells and carries it
back to liver to be broken
down/eliminated
LDL – Low Density
Lipoprotein – carry fat to
cells
Proteins

1.
2.
3.

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Many functions:
Enzymes
Source of energy
Muscles, hormones,
clotting, antibiotics all
depend on proteins
AMINO ACIDS – building
blocks of proteins
Proteins that contain all
amino acids are
COMPLETE PROTEINS –
milk, eggs, meat
Proteins Cont.



Proteins that do not contain
all amino acids are
INCOMPLETE PROTEINS
– vegetables, beans, wheat
Can’t store excess amino
acids – excreted as urea
Adults in US eat too much
protein – puts extra burden
on liver and kidney which
must eliminate urea from
body.
Minerals and Trace Elements
Mineral
From
inorganic
compounds
in food,
many
necessary
form human
growth and
maintenance
Most
important
are sodium,
potassium,
calcium iron
Trace
Fluorine
Elements
Present in
In
very small
drinking
amounts,
water,
toxic levels
are close to needed
healthy
for bones
levels.
and teeth
Most
minerals
present in
average
adult diet
Iodine
Iron
In
shellfish
and
iodized
salt,
needed
to make
thyroid
hormone
In liver, lean
meats,
needed to
make
hemoglobin
Vitamins

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Vitamin- biologically active
organic compound
Function as coenzyme for
normal health and growth,
some behave like hormones
A,D,E,K – fat soluble
vitamins – can be stored by
the body
B vitamins, pantothenic
acid, folic acid, biotin and
Vitamin C – water soluble –
can’t be stored, excess
excreted by body
Fiber


Found in plant foods
like whole-grain breads,
cereals, beans, and
peas, other vegetables
and fruit
Eating a variety of plant
food important for
proper bowel function,
may lower the risk of
heart disease and
some cancers.
Definitions
(RDA) Recommended
dietary allowances
Chart that lists
recommended intake of
vitamins and minerals
Basal Metabolic Rate –
Amount of energy needed
to maintain life when
the body is at rest

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Metabolism- use of
food nutrients by the
body to produce energy
Food Guide Pyramid
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The food guide pyramid
was redesigned in 2005. A
rainbow of colored, vertical
stripes represent the five
food groups, as well as fats
and oils.
Orange- grains
Green -vegetables
Red -fruits
Blue -milk and dairy
products
Purple -meat, beans, fish,
and nuts
Yellow -oils

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
changed the pyramid because they wanted to
do a better job of telling Americans how to be
healthy. They guy climbing the staircase up
the side of the pyramid shows how important
it is to exercise and be active.
Nutrition Labeling


FDA requires nutrition
labeling for most foods
Includes information on
calories, nutrient
contents
Includes recommended
daily allowances of
nutrients.
Regular Diet Balanced diet no restrictions
Liquid Diet Clear or full liquid
Used after surgery or heart attack
For pts. With digestive problems or before x-ray of
digestive tract.
Low
Cholesterol
For pts. With atherosclerosis and heart disease
Restrict foods high in saturated fat such as beef,
liver, pork, lamb, egg yolk, cream cheese, shellfish,
and whole milk
Sodium
Restricted
Reduced salt intake for pts with cardiovascular disease
and kidney disease and edema
NO added salt and avoid smoked or processed foods,
pickles, olives, and some processed cheese.
Bland Diet
Easily digested foods that don’t irritate digestive tract
Avoid fried foods, spices raw fruits and vegs., coffee
or tea, alcoholic and carbonated beverages
For pts with ulcers or GI disease
Guidelines for a Healthy Diet
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Eat a variety of foods
Maintain desirable weight
Avoid too much fat, saturated fat (animal
fat) and cholesterol
Eat foods with adequate starch and fiber
(roughage)
Avoid too much sugar
Avoid too much sodium
Don’t drink alcohol!
Eating Disorders
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Obesity
Most common nutritional
disease
Weighs 15% more than
optimal body weight for
gender, height, and bone
structure
Obesity affects physical and
mental health
Causes- taking in more
calories than are burned
Anorexia Nervosa
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Serious mental disorder,
mostly in teenage females
Criteria for diagnosis:
Intense fear of becoming
obese that does not go away
with wt. loss
Distorted body image( feels
fat even when emaciated)
Weight loss of at least 25% of
original body weight
Refusal to maintain minimal
normal wt.
No known physical illness
Amenorrhea
Bulimia


Episodic binge eating
followed by PURGING
(vomiting and laxative
abuse)
Usually women, older
than teens
Definitions
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

Anorexia: loss of appetite
Malnutrition: State of poor nutrition due to diet
or illness
Fluorine Deficiency: tooth decay
Iodine Deficiency: Goiter (enlarged thyroid)
Iron Deficiency: Anemia